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Chemical Synthesis

The 7 stages of Chemical Synthesis in the chemical industry, and factors which affect chemical production.

Emily Myles

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Chemical Synthesis

Can you find your way through the maze to find out how chemicals are made? CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS Stage 1: Choosing
the Reaction Before we can begin, the type of reaction must be decided. We need to choose the safest and cheapest type of reaction. Stage 2: Risk
Assessment Now we need to decide how dangerous the reaction will be, who will be in danger and what precautions we can take to minimize the risks. Stage 3:
Reactants We have to know how much of each reactant is needed, and a theoretical yield is calculated to predict the amount of product we will get. Stage 4: Choosing
Apparatus and Conditions The best apparatus for the reaction must be chosen, as well as the conditions for the reactions. Stage 5:
Isolating the
product Filtering the product separates it from the mixture. Stage 6:
Purification To purify the product, methods such as evaporation, drying, dessication and crystallization make the product purer. Stage 7: Measuring
Yield and Purity Finally, we compare the product we have created with our initial calculations to see how worthwhile the reaction is, and also test a sample for purity. Congratulations! You have successfully completed your journey of chemical synthesis! Examples
Examples acid + alkali -> water + salt
acid + metal carbonate -> carbon dioxide + hydrogen + salt
acid + metal -> hydrogen + salt Wearing safety goggles
Chemical resistant gloves
Fume cupboard
Using tongs Worked Example Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide -> water + copper chloride HCl + CuO -> H O + CuCl 2 2 Relative Atomic Masses 1 + 35.5 63.5 + 16 2x1 + 16 63.5 + 2x35.5

36.5 79.5 18 134.5 How much copper chloride can you obtain from 140g of copper oxide and excess hydrochloric acid? Masses 140g xg /79.5
x140 /79.5
x140 x= 134./79.5 x 140 = 236.9g Factors that affect rates of reactions: Temperature
Surface Area
Catalyst Examples Percentage Yield = Actual Yield Theoretical Yield x 100 Percentage Purity= Initial mass of sample Calculated mass of useful product x 100 Summary:
1. Choosing the reaction
2. Risk assessment
3. Quantities of reactants
4. Choosing apparatus and conditions
5. Isolating the product
6. Purification
7. Measuring yield and purity
Full transcript