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Sloths

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by

Jocelyn Baer

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Sloths

The St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus can effect sloths. It cases sloths to feel almost flu like symptoms. The sloth slowly creates long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers that fight the antigen.



Sloths
Jocelyn Baer
Interactions within the Sloth
Exchange with Gases: The rete mirabile is a system of arteries and veins that is responsible for controlling the concentration of gases in the blood stream.
Circulation of Fluids: Blood is pumped around the body through arteries and veins by the heart. The organs are positioned in way, so that fluids can more easily go around the body when hanging upside down.
Digestion of Food : Sloths have a complex system of compartments in their stomach. Food travels from a large compartment into a small compartment, then into a tubular compartment. Sloths eat mostly plant matter, which is broken down by bacteria and ferments in their stomachs. It can take up to a month for a sloth to fully digest food.
Excretion of Wastes : To conserve energy ,sloths only excrete their waste once a week. This is because they have to travel down from the canopy to excrete waste.

Interactions Between Systems in the Sloth
Feedback Mechanism
Disease Effect on the Sloth
Maintaining Homeostasis
Interactions with Other Sloths
Exchanging Information
Innate and Learned Behaviors
Interactions with the Community and the Environment
Regulation of Physiological Events
Food Web
When a sloth infant is separated from its mother, the mother's response is to let out a loud low pitch scream for 30-90 seconds. When the infant will then make a whistle sound until it is reunited with its mother.
Growth Model
Symbiotic Relationships
Humans Impact on the Sloth
Environmental Changes Impact on the Sloth
Environmental Factors the Impact the Sloth
Genetic Variation
Keystone Species?
Sloth reproduce sexually leading to genetic varvariation. There are two main species of Sloth. There is the two-toed(Choloepus hoffmanni ) and three-toes sloth(Bradypus variegatus). Three-toed sloths tend to be smaller and faster than two-toed sloths, which helps increase survival. Two-toed sloths have a more diverse diet, increasing their survival.
When the sloth detects a threat in it's territory it's nervous system alerts its respiratory system to make a territorial scream.
Innate Behavior- Sloth children cling to their mothers, so they do not fall from the tree canopy.
Learned Behavior- Sloths cannot walk on their hind legs, so in order to move themselves across the ground when they have to learn to drag themselves by their forearms.
Sloths fallow a logistic growth model. Sloths have a long gestational period which only allows a female to produce one off spring per year. There is also deforestation, which causes the elimination of sloth habitat. Sloth's gestational period and habitat destruction are limiting factors in sloth population growth.
Example of logistic pop. growth. The population levels off at the carrying capacity.
Algae lives around the fur of the sloth. The algae gets shelter and water from the sloths fur. The algae supplies the sloth with camouflage from predators and nutrients that the sloth absorbs from the algae through its skin.
Human cut down trees to build farms, eliminating sloth's habitats. Sloths require trees for shelter and food. Sloth's live, eat, sleep, and reproduce in the tree canopy. Deforestation is leading to a decline in the sloth population. Many sloths also fall onto roads and are killed by cars.
12,900 years ago there was a shift in climate to a cooler, dryer climate. This change caused the extinction of the giant ground sloth. Descendents of the giant ground sloth are the tree dwelling sloths of today, that are found in more tropical climates.
Long periods of wet and rainy weather can cause a nursing mother to become very chilled. The bacteria in her stomach become disabled and digestion to stop.

Sloths are not a keystone spices. They do not have many specific functions that are crucial to an environment, and no other animals are dependent on the sloth for survival. Elimination of the sloth would cause some decrease in the food source of the jaguar. Sloths have little impact on their environment.
Sloths maintain body heat by changing the amount of blood flow to the limbs. Decreasing blood flow to the limbs allows the core to stay warm while increasing blood flow to the limbs allows the core to cool.
When the hypothalamus detects low amounts of thyroid hormone (Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)), it responds by releasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which tells the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormone. This process regulated the sloth's metabolize. Sloth's have a very low set-point for this feedback mechanism to occur, causing their metabolism to be very slow.
Sloth's sleep and wake cycle is controlled by its circadian rhythm, which is effected by the amount of light and dark hour are. While sloth sleep in both the light and the dark, when there are more hours of dark, sloths sleep more.
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