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The Greeks

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 20 September 2018

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Transcript of The Greeks

The first people to settle in mainland Greece were Indo-Europeans in 1600 BC
Called Mycenaean, named after their major city
Culture was similar to the Minoans
Gained power through conquest and spread across the region
-The Mycenaeans were during Homer's Greece
-Iliad and the Odyssey
-Trojan War was fictionalized in Homer's work, but the Mycenaeans did defeat the great city-state of Troy
-The Mycenaeans developed the culture, society, and religion of future Greeks
-Mycenaen culture was warlike and war-chiefs were the leaders
-Major cities other than Mycenae were Pylos, Thebes, and Athens
-Each city was separated by the Greek mountains, so they developed their own culture
-Society was also based in trade and placed a strong emphasis war
Greek Gods and Goddesses
The Greek religion was polytheistic
Greek gods were human-like, both in appearance and flaws
Had a god or goddess for virtually everything
The Greek gods were born from the Titans, masters of the universe.
The most powerful titan, Kronos, was destined to be overthrown by one of his sons
Kronos had 5 children by his wife (gods), then ate them all after they were born
To save the 6th child, Kronos's wife gave him a stone wrapped in blankets which he ate instead
This last son is Zeus
-Zeus was raised in secret
-When he came of age, he freed the slaves of the Titans
-Fought Kronos and forced him to release the brothers and sisters of Zeus
-Zeus and his siblings (gods) fought and defeated Kronos and the Titans to take control of the universe
-The gods make Mt. Olympus their home

-Zeus-king of the gods and rules the sky

-Poseidon-rules the sea and earth

-Hades-rules the underworld
-The sister goddesses are Hera, Hestia
and Demeter

-Hera-Zeus's wife and the goddess of marriage,
women, childbirth, kings, and empires

-Hestia-goddess of home, hospitality ,and cooking

-Demeter-goddess of agriculture, grains,
and harvest
Other Great Olympians:

-Athena-daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom/war strategy

-Ares-god of war, nobody likes him

-Aphrodite-of love

-Artemis-goddess of the hunt and animals

-Apollo-twin brother of Artemis, god of the sun and archery

-Dionysus-god of wine and parties, alcoholic

-Hephaestus-god of smithing and crafts, husband of Aphrodite

-Hermes-son of Zeus, messenger god
Fall of Myceanaen Greece
Around 1100 BC things begin to go wrong for the Myceanaens
A series of major natural disasters and invasions from city-states in Asia Minor weakened the civilization
The Dorians then spread into Greece and the Myceanaens declined in 1000 BC
-The Dorians were Greeks, but a different ethnic group
-Their culture was slightly different than the Mycenaeans
-Founded the major city-state of Sparta in 950 BC
-The Dorians did not "conquer" the Mycenaens through combat
-Their culture simply became the dominant one in Greece
-This marked the beginning of the Greek Dark Age
-The Dark Age was a period from 1100 BC-750 BC
-Historians found steps backward in Greek art and architecture
-No works of literature or philosophy
-Social classes became more divided
-Kings fell and rulers became simple local chieftains
-More wars between the city-states and the Greeks stopped trading with other civilizations in the Mediterranean Sea
-Became isolationists
-Around 750 BC the Greek population exploded
-Pop. growth led to more colonization
-City-states grew, evolved, and became more powerful than they had during Mycenaean Greece
-All this brought about an end of the Dark Ages
Democracy in Athens
First Olympics were held in 776 BC in honor of the gods
Competitors were from different city-states
5 day event
Only men attended and competed
Events included sprints of different distances, wrestling, chariot racing, discus/javelin throwing, boxing, equestrian, and the Hoplite race
-Two Greek city-states emerged as the most powerful after the Dark Age
-Each of them took very different paths to achieve greatness
-One chose to pursue power through military might
-One chose to pursue power through culture and politics
Was the first civilization to establish and be run by a democracy
Democracy-is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows people to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws.
Comes from two Greek words
"demos"-people and "kratos"-power
Sparta was originally plagued by civil turmoil, but was brought under control by the lawgiver Lycurgus
Lycurgus based Spartan law and order off 3 rules: equality, military fitness, and austerity
The backbone of Spartan society was the agoge
Agoge was only available to citizens who could trace their ancestry back to the original Sparta
The point of this was to create a citizenship of super soldiers completely dedicated to the state
-Series of 4 training regimens all boys in Sparta must pass to be Spartans
1. Test of strength and health at birth
2. Age 7-17 (the Paídes)
3. Age 17-19 (the Paidískoi)
4. Age 20-29 (the Hēbōntes)
Mt. Taygetoss
-Boys were taken from the family at 7 and lived in barracks with their agelai (herd)
-Taught to give loyalty to others in their age group (Syssitia) who they stayed, lived, trained, and worked with at all times
-More important than immediate family
-Starting age 12, they would be given one item of clothing a year starting with a red cloak
-Also begin a relationship with an older warrior
-Intentionally underfed
-Encouraged to steal food, but savagely beaten if caught
-Boys became reserves in the army at age 18
-By age 20 they were voted into a "mess" by other members of that mess (unit)
-An individual had 10 years to be voted into a mess
-After being voted into a mess, they became official Spartans
-Age 30 was when men could take a wife, vote, and hold office
Girls also received a state education from a young age
Taught dance, gymnastics, sports, music, poetry, writing and war education
Encouraged to humiliate and ridicule males during the boys' training and exercise
Being graceful and cultured was looked down on
Primary task was to give birth to warriors, so they must be strong, healthy, and educated
Were in the nude during holidays, religious ceremonies, and exercise
Common sentiment among Spartan women, "I bore him so that he might die for Sparta, and that is what has happened, as i have wished."
Greco-Persian Wars
-2 separate times Greece was invaded by the Persian Emp.
-King Darius was defeated the first time between 492-490 BC
-His son, Xerxes, was defeated during the second invasion between 480-479
Smaller, and made up mostly of middle/upper class men who could afford their own armor
Used the phalanx and were a heavy infantry
Also used archers/skirmishes called psiloi
Never used cavalry
Large and mixed from many different people across the Empire
Had a uniformity in uniform and fighting style
All soldiers carried bows, primary weapon was short spears
Light leather armor and wicker shields, designed for speed...only wealthier soldiers could afford metal armor
Strong and well-trained cavalry
The navy was a huge component of both the Persian and Greek military
Both sides used trireme ships (powered by 3 rows of oars)
On a good weather day, crews would row 6-8 hours and cover 50-60 miles
Commanded by a trierarch, a wealthy citizen who ran and maintained the ship for a 35 year lease
15 crew who ran sails, lookout, mess, and were in charge of the rowers
10-20 hoplites for boarding
170 rowers, usually from the lower class...not slaves
-Made little use of projectiles
-All ships were made with a ram at the bow, used to puncture holes in the hull to sink enemy ships
-Also snap enemy oars by running over them, makes the enemy immobile
-Hoplites were mainly there for defense, but could also serve as boarding parties
-Naval battles were specatcles that were popular to watch
-Casualties were extremely high (85-95%), entire fleets would be wiped out in a battle
-Darius' son-in-law, Mardonius, led the first invasion of Greece in 492 BC
-Conquered Macedonia (northern Greece) but was forced to turn back after his fleet was wrecked in a storm and he was injured in a raid
-Darius attempted to jump on the early Persian success and sent messengers+ambassadors to demanded the surrender and cooperation of all the Greek city-states
-Every city-state agreed to surrender...Sparta and Athens executed the messengers+ambassadors
In 490 BC, Darius and his two best generals (Datis and Artaphernes) began a second campaign
-Captured city states like Rhodes, Naxus, and Eritea
-Burned the cities and enslaved the citizens
-Then sailed down to the Bay of Marathon to begin a march towards Athens

Battle of Marathon
Athens had managed a force of 10,000 troops with assistance from 1000 Plateans (a small city-state near Athens)
Opposing a force of 30,000 Persian infantry and 2000 cavalry
The Athenians were outnumbered 3:1 but had the Persians boxed in at the beach
Both sides were hesitant to attack...the Greeks did not want to give up their good position but the Persians did not want to attack uphill
-Athenians attacked first...they were worried the Persians would sneak off to attack unguarded Athens
-The Greeks charged the center of the Persian line
-The Persians held their ground because of superior numbers
-The Athenians fell back and formed a new battle line
-The heavily armored Athenians held the Persian assaults
-The flanks of the Athenian army then enveloped the Persians
-Persians were double enveloped on both flanks and the troops on the side were pushed to the center
-When the Persians in the middle saw the were being surrounded, they broke and fled to the ships
-This ended the battle and proved the Persians were not invincible
Persians Seek Revenge
-Darius planned to invade Greece again, but had to deal with a rebellion in Egypt
-Died soon after defeating the Egypt rebellion, but always regretted not being able to topple the Greeks
-Son, Xerxes, made it his life mission to accomplish his father's dream
-Built an army of 500,000 troops, 1200 warships, and supplies to last 3 years
2nd Greco-Persian War
Xerxes invaded northern Greece in 480 BC
All the city-states united this time because of the confidence gained from Marathon
The Macedonians offered some resistance but knew they could not hold back the Persians
Told the other Greeks not to assist them because it would be impossible to defeat the massive Persian numbers in open battle
Would have to fight at a place that would make the Persian numbers ineffective

-Unable to pass through the mountains, the Persians army could only get to southern Greece by traveling the narrow Thermopylae Pass
-King Leonidas of Sparta agreed to lead 300 of his personal guard to defend the pass, could not take the army because the Spartans were in the middle of a religious holiday
-Leonidas gathered 4500 men from nearby city-states along the way
-Stationed his troops in the narrow part of the pass so the phalanx would fill it, also put 1000 men in the mountains around the pass to prevent the Greek position from being flanked

Battle of Thermopylae
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
-10,000 Persian infantry attacked the Greek position
-Persians' weaker shields and shorter spears and swords of the prevented them from effectively engaging the hoplites
-the Immortals were used in the evening of the first day and were also defeated
-over 7000 Persian casualties----only 40-50 Greek casualties

-Persian attacks did not better the 2nd day, Xerxes was perplexed and in shock
-Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks and showed Xerxes the path around the mountain
-Xerxes sent his best commander with 20,000 troops to flank the Greeks

-Leonidas ordered the other city states to return home
-the surviving Spartans (270) and Thespians (700) stayed to make a final stand
-virtually all the Greeks were killed and the pass was opened to the Persian Army
-Leonidas was killed along with 2500 Greeks
-20,000 Persian casualties, but Persians occupied the evacuated Athens

Battle of Salamis
-Greeks feared the Persians would invade the Peloponnese Peninsula

-planned to block the Persians using their navy at the Strait of Corinth

-the Greek navy had 380 ships---Persians had 1200

-Greek fleet lured the Persians into a small isthmus which negated the numerical advantage of the Persians

-50 Greek ships were sunk, but they destroyed 300 Persian ships

-Xerxes retreated from Greece with most of his army, left his best commander with 120,000 men to complete the conquest of Greece
Battle of Platea
-the Greeks wanted to force a decisive battle on the remaining Persians

-80,000 Greeks surrounded the Persian camp outside the city of Platea where a stalemate lasted 11 days

-Mardonius, the Persian commander, ordered his troops to attack

-the Greeks stood their ground, killed Mardonius, and routed the Persians

-resounding Greek victory

-6000 Greeks fell, but only 20,000 Persians survived the battle

-this effectively ended the 2nd Greco-Persian War

-Persia would never attempt to invade Greece again
Greek Golden Age
-was the 100 year period of Greek success from 510 BC-400 BC

-began in earnest with the defeat of Persia and ended with the conclusion of the Peloponnesian War

-greatly influenced the foundations of the Western Civilization

-modern Western politics, artistic thought, architecture, scientific thought, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history

-had a great influence on the Romans

-major names to come out of this period are Socrates and Aristophanes
-lived from 469-399 BC in Athens

-major contributor to the field of ethics and inventor of the "Socratic Method"

-questions are asked to draw individual answers, and also to encourage insight into the issue at hand

-he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with many of his fellow Athenians

-one of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I only know that I know nothing"

-Socrates' wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance

-Plato was his greatest student

-put on trial for "corrupting the youth of Athens" and "defying the gods"

-drank hemlock poison to kill himself after being found guilty
-playwright who lived in Athens from 446-386 BC

-known as the "Father of Comedy"

-11 of his 30 plays survive virtually complete

-said to recreate the life of ancient Athens more convincingly than any other author

-powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential peers...Plato blames his play "The Clouds" for leading to Socrates death

-topics of comedies ranged from ridicule of individuals, religion, and politics

-anyone known to the audience could be mocked for any reason, such as diseases, physical deformities, ugliness, family misfortunes, bad manners, perversions, dishonesty, cowardice in battle, and clumsiness

-dirty humor was often used and citizens of other city states were torn apart in the plays
Athenian Power
-the 50 years preceding the Peloponnesian War were marked by Athens rise to power in the Mediterranean

-Athens had been a leading founder of the Hellenic League

-the Hellenic League was an alliance system of all the Greek city-states formed during the Greco-Persian Wars

-following the end of the Greco-Persian wars, Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnese peninsula became isolationist and left the Hellenic League

-the Hellenic League was renamed the Delian League and was led by Athens
-Athens used the Delian League as a front for expansion in the Mediterranean

-the Athenians collected taxes from the Delian members and used the money for public works in Athens and to fund a massive navy

-captured the Greek colonies all along the coast of Asia Minor

-conquered all of mainland Greece except for Sparta and her allies on the Peloponnese

-Sparta began to fear the aggressive expansion of Athens and set up their own alliance system...Peloponnesian League
First Blood
-in 459 BC the city-states of Corinth and Megara went to war...both were allies of Sparta

-Athens took advantage of this by supporting Megara and gaining land on the Isthmus of Corinth

-Sparta was threatened by this action and felt that Athens had no right to intervene in a war between cities of the Peloponnesian League

-Sparta prepared a massive invasion of Athenian territory

-Athens agreed to sign the 30 Years Peace in 446 BC to end the war

-3 terms of the 30 Years Peace
1. Athens would stop interfering in the affairs of cities in the Peloponnisian League
2. Athens would give up their land on the Isthmus of Corinth
3. Athens and Sparta would respect the other ones right to run their own alliance league
Breakdown of Peace
-several incidents occurred which led to the breakdown of peace between the Leagues
-most of these incidents were between Athens and the 2nd most powerful Peloponnesian city-state...Corinth

4. Athens embargo on Megara

-Megara returned to being an ally of Sparta after Potidaea was lost
-Athens refused to trade with them out of spite, destroyed the Megara economy

1. Athens intervention against Corinth

-Corinth attempted to capture Corcyra, a city-state not in either League
-Athens chose to use its large navy to defend Corcyra and destroyed the Corinthian fleet

2. Athens demands concessions from Potidaea

-Potidaea was a Corinth colony in Athenian territory
-Athens demanded Potidaea tear down its walls, send hostages to Athens, and dismiss the Corinthian politicians from office

3. Corinth supports rebellion in Potidaea

-Corinth encouraged Potidaea to rebel against Athenian rule
-supported Potidaea with ships and money
-Sparta called a meeting of the Peloponnesian League in 432 BC to discuss the trouble with Athens

-a delegate from Athens showed up uninvited and the meeting turned into a debate between Athens and Corinth

-Corinth criticized Sparta for their inactivity

-Athens reminded Sparta how powerful Athens was and what the had done to Persia 60 years before

-a majority of the Spartan assembly voted to declare that the Athenians had broken the 30 Years Peace, essentially declaring war
Land vs Sea
-Sparta and her allies (except Corinth) were all land based powers

-large land armies which were nearly unbeatable

-the Athenian Empire (Delian League) was spread across islands

-immense wealth was made form these many islands and city-states

-Athens fielded a huge and powerful navy

-the two powers were unable to fight decisive battles

-made for a very long and drawn out war
Siege of Athens
-Spartan army quickly invaded Attica and put Athens under siege in 431 BC

-"Siege" is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault

-civilians fled inside the long city walls of Athens for protection

-the Athenian general, Pericles, knew Athens had enough soldiers and supplies to survive for years under siege

-Athenian navy raided trade routes, attacked the Peloponnese coast, and defeated any fleets they came across early in the war
Plague of Athens
-in 430 BC an outbreak of a plague hit Athens

-over 30,000 civilians and soldiers died in the plague including Pericles and his whole family

-Athens was severely weakened

-Sparta abandoned the siege and returned home in fear of their own soldiers getting sick and bringing the plague into the Peloponnese

-disease still found its way south and most of Greece was affected

-a few small battles were fought between troops outside the city, but the war was essentially put on hold
Battle of Matinea---421 BC
-largest land battle fought within Greece during the Peloponnesian War

-several Peloponnesian city-state rebelled against Spartan rule becasue they wanted more democracy

-Athens, still in recovery mode, seized the opportunity and supported the rebellion with money and troops

-Spartans went forth to fight a combined forces of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia and were victorious

-closest Sparta ever came to losing

Sicilian Expedition
-Syracuse was a Spartan ally in Sicily, most of the island was made up of small city-states loyal to Athens

-415 BC Syracuse attacked Athenian allies in Sicily

-Athens sent over 100 ships and some 5,000 troops

-Syracuse called for Spartan reinforcements and violent fighting rocked the island for a year

-the Athenian navy was destroyed in the Battle of the Great Harbor at Syracuse while trying to send reinforcements

-the Athenian soldiers stuck on land were hunted down and killed
Athens on the Ropes
-it was widely believed that the end of the Athenian Empire was at hand after the disaster in Sicily

-Athenian treasury was nearly empty, naval docks were depleted, allies abandoned them, and the youth was dead or imprisoned

-even Persia allied themselves with Sparta in order to destroy Athens

-Athens survived for 4 reasons

1. Peloponnesian League was slow to act
2. Athens had put aside some money and 100 ships that were to be used only as a last resort if the war went against them
3. Had a brilliant military commander, Alcibiades
4. Their small fleet won a string of minor victories that restored order to the Delian League and kept Athens alive
Spartan Victory
-Athens was weak, but holding on due to their naval strength

-Sparta needed to destroy the Athenian navy in order to win the war

-a Spartan peasant turned noble, Lysander, took on the task of building a Spartan navy and leading it himself

-in 405 BC Lysander led a Spartan/Corinth fleet to attack the main Athenian port

-Lysander pulled of the upset and destroyed the Athenian fleet at the Battle of Aegospotami

-facing starvation and disease from inevitable siege, Athens and allies surrendered in 404 BC

-Athens was stripped of its walls, its fleet, and all of its overseas possessions
Impact of the War
-Corinth demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens enslaved

-Sparta refused to destroy a city that had done a good service at a time of greatest danger to Greece

-took Athens into the Peloponnesian League

-Athens was "to have the same friends and enemies" as Sparta

-democracy remained in Athens and the city-state would slowly recover and play a role in Greek politics

Greece is Damaged
-the Peloponnesian War ended the "Golden Age" of Greece

-atrocities had been committed on a large scale

-religious and cultural beliefs had been shattered

-vast parts of the countryside were destroyed

-whole cities were leveled and thousands of civilians died

-the war greatly weakened southern Greece and left them vulnerable for invasion....
-born July 20, 356 BC

-son of King Phillip II of Macedonia

-mother was Olympias...Phillip II's fourth wife but his favorite because he was first to give him a son

-Alexander was raised like most noble Macedonian youths=learned to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt

-Alexander began to be tutored by Aristotle at age 13

-Alex and many children of Macedonian nobles were tutored by Aristotle

-most of these kids would go on to be Alex's best friends and future generals

-taught about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art

-Alex particularly loved the works of Homer....his hero was Achilles and he slept with copy of "The Iliad" under his pillow for his entire life
Alexander's First Taste of Power
-when Alex was 16, his father took a Macedonian army and invaded southern Greece

-left Alex in charge of Macedonia

-the Thracians (a region north of Macedonia) took advantage of a young Alex and invaded Macedonian

-Alex quickly organized an army, pushed the Thracians out of his territory, and conquered all of Thrace

-burned their largest city and massacred every civilian...built a new city in its place named Alexandropolis
Father+Son Dominate Greece
-Alex successfully conquered Thrace and other small kingdoms around Macedonia

-impressed by his military success, Phillip II ordered Alex and his army to come south and assist in the conquering of Greece

-Alex and Phillip II conquered almost every Greek city-state druing the year 338 BC, stopping only when they got to Sparta

-Phillip II organized the Corinthian League, an alliance of all the Greek city-states (except Sparta)

-the Corinthian League was run by Macedonia and Phillip II elected himself leader

-like the Delian League, simply a front for Macedonian power
-Phillip II was assassinated by his personal bodyguard, Pausanias, at his daughter's wedding in 336 BC

-Pausanias was killed trying to escape

-Alexander was proclaimed king by the nobles and army at the age of 20

-Phillip II had 4 wives and many children capable of claiming power over Macedonia should Alex die

-Alex immediately had any rivals or potential rivals to the throne killed, including his own cousin

-Olympias had Phillip II's second favorite wife, Cleopatra Eurydice and her 10 year old daughter Europa, burned alive

-Phillip II's death caused many states to revolt including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedonia

-Alexander had to respond quickly to prevent the 2 year old Macedonian Kingdom from falling apart

-Alex quickly took a military force south to suppress the Greek city-states

-only had 3000 cavalry troops, but would not wait for the rest of the army to be raised

-absolutely destroyed Thebes when he got south

-every other city-state surrendered after the destruction of Thebes and would not rebel again

-Alexander pardoned all the rebels

-Alex then went back north and grabbed the rest of his army in Macedonia

-conquered all his northern neighbors and had the entire Greek peninsula firmly under his control by 335 BC
-Phillip II's dream had been to destroy the Persian Empire

-could only do this with the full power of the Greeks

-Alexander, with all of Greece under his control, raised a military force of 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships (38,000 crewmen)

-Alexander's Army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC and scored a series of quick victories against the Persians

-secured all of the cities along the coast of Asia Minor before preparing to turn inland

-Alexander granted immunity from taxation and public service to family members of soldiers who died fighting for
-first major battle of the Conquest of Persia

-100,000 Persians were led into battle by King Darius III...Alexander had 40,850 troops

-Persians focused on the left flank of Alex's army, but the more heavily armed Greeks held

-allowed the Greek cavalry on the right flank to wheel around and hit the entire Persian line

-Alex then personally led a charge on Darius III's position

-Darius III
-first major battle of the Conquest of Persia

-100,000 Persians were led by King Darius III...Alexander had 40,850 troops

-Persians attacked left wing of Alex's army

-more heavily armored (outnumbered) Greeks held the line

-Greek cavalry from the right wheeled around and hit the Persian line

-Persian casualties were devastating and Darius III fled the battlefield

-Persians routed when they saw their king fleeing

-Darius III left his wife and 2 daughters behind, captured by Alexander
Siege of Tyre
-Alex next turned to attack Tyre, an island city that was the last naval stronghold of the Persians

-blockaded the city and put it under siege, but Tyre was hoping the Persian fleet would come to rescue them

-Alexander built a man-made causeway to bring siege weapons+men up to the city walls

-many Greeks soldiers were killed and Tyre's defiance infuriated Alexander

-the citizens of Tyre hung the dead Greeks from their city walls

-after 8 months a weak point in Tyre's walls was broken through by the Greeks

-6000 Tyre soldiers died trying to hold off the Greeks, but were overrun

-as punishment Alexander had 2000 civilians crucified on the beach and sold 30,000 people into slavery

-Persian power was failing quickly

-Darius III offered Alexander a peace of 2 terms
1)payment of 30,000 talents for the return of his family
2)offering of all land already conquered by Alexander

-Alex knew he had all the momentum and refused the offer

-resolved to destroy Persia completely

-married his daughter Stateira II anyway
Liberation of Egypt
-Alex moved south with his army capturing more towns along the Mediterranean coast

-Jerusalem willingly surrendered and Alex was regarded as the prophecy from the Book of Daniel

-Gaza resisted him and was put under siege

-the city soon fell and Alex did the usual conquer thing

-the rest of Egypt greeted Alex as a liberator, named him the son of Ra, and pledged their loyalty to him

-founded the city of Alexandria, Egypt which would go on to be one of the greatest cities in the world

-Alex left Egypt with a fresh army in 331 BC

-moved into the heart of the Persian Empire near modern day Iraq

-Darius III again met him with 100,000 troops...Alex had 47,000

-Alex again won a decisive victory and Darius III fled into southern Russia

-Alex moved forward and captured Babylon and the power of the Persian Empire was essentially broken

-Darius III was later murdered by some of his satraps
-Alex pursued Darius III into Central Asia

-Darius III was murdered in 329 BC by his satrap in the region

-Alex then spent the rest of the year suppressing all of the Persian satraps

-Alexander took the Persian title "King of Kings"

-married his childhood sweetheart Roxana, with whom he had one son named after himself

-quickly began planning a campaign into India
-in 327 BC Alexander and his army invaded northern India

-he demanded that the tribes in the region submit to his rule, but many refused

-the north Indian tribes united under a man named Raja Porus

-Alexander was able to bring most of the region under his control, but the cost was very high

-the Indian tribes fought fierce guerrilla warfare and used strange tactics and weapons unseen by the Greeks (elephants)

-Alexander allowed Porus to live and rule northern India for him

-marched his army south to face the Nanda and Gangaridai Empires of central and east India

-Alex's army marched to the Ganges River but refused to go any further

-the prospect of facing other large armies worried the Greeks and they were exhausted by years of campaigning

-"longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland"

-Alex relented and turned back marking the end of his conquest...it was 323 BC
-Alex returned to Persia and executed any military governors who had misbehaved while he was in India

-married his best generals and advisers to the daughters of Persian nobles

-soon after settling in Persia, his best friend Hephastion died on illness

-Alexander was devastated and heart broken

-dove into his work and began planning military campaigns in the Arabian desert, Europe, North Africa, and China

-his behavior became erratic and he took to drinking more heavily
-Alexander died in Babylon on July 11, 323 BC at age 32

-about twelve days earlier he had developed a fever

-natural-cause theories also tend to emphasize that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and severe wounds

-death of Hephastion also likely contributed

-Alex's advisers found extensive plans Alexander had that he never got the chance to put into action

1-Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt"
2-Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple to Athena at Troy
3-Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean Basin
4-Circumnavigation of Africa
5-Development of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties."
-Alex had no strong heir, his son was born after he died

-death was so sudden that many people in Greece did not initially believe it

-Alexander's companions asked him on his deathbed who should rule his kingdom; his reply was"to the strongest"

-the Kingdom divided into civil war for 40 years as Alexander's best generals fought each other for control...Olympias, Roxana, and Alexander's son were all killed in this time

-eventually there was peace and the Kingdom was divided into 4 separate powers

1.Ptolemiac Kingdom of Egypt
2. Seleucid Empire in the east
3. Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor
4. Macedonian Greece

-Alexander's Kingdom covered over 2,000,000 square miles at its peak

-founded over 20 cities that bear his name

-undefeated in battle

-spread Greek culture throughout most of the known world

-Greek culture would influence Asia Minor, Egypt, the Middle East, and Central Asia for over 300 years due to Alexander and the 4 Kingdoms that rose after his death

-was a major influence on the Romans..but also served as a warning to the powers of a military dictator

-Alex's wars also left Greece weak in man power leaving them vulnerable
-the most common myths are stories about gods and spirituality

-myths also explain how a society's customs, institutions and taboos were created

-above all, myths exist to explain why the world is the way that it is
-many societies group their myths, legends and history together

-it can sometimes be hard to determine what is "real" history and what is just legend/myth

-real history becomes more like a myth over a long time
Greek Mythology
-Greek myths are some of the most well-known and influential

-like all mythology, Greek myths are mostly about three things

1. Origin of the world and laws of nature
2. The lives and activities of god, heroes, and fantasy creatures
3. The origins and importance of the ancient Greeks' lifestyle
These two themes are often seen in most Greek myths
---extreme or foolish pride and dangerous overconfidence or arrogance. People with hubris overestimate their accomplishments or capabilities
-Many Greek myths involve a character with a lot of hubris who then challenges the gods...only to be punished in the end-
---a power that predetermines and orders the course of events. Events and outcomes are inevitable and unavoidable.
-Many Greek myths involve a character learning about their fate and then trying to change it...only to end up following their fate anyway-
-the Three Fates are actually characters in Greek mythology-
-the Hero's Journey in a theory created by a mythologist named Joseph Campbell

-the theory is that stories that involve a hero going on an adventure all follow a very similar pattern

---Campbell summarizes the Hero's Journey---

1. A hero ventures forth from the common, ordinary world into a place of supernatural magic and wonder
2. Fabulous, powerful, and dangerous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won
3. The hero comes back from this great adventure with the power to share his knowledge or gifts with other people
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