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SUPERVISOR: ASSOC.PROF.DR. FOO HOOI LING Suitable bacteria or bacterial consortium for bioconversion of PKC.
Appropriate condition for SSF.
Increase in protein content of PKC. METHODOLOGY To screen the most suitable LAB culture to be used for the degradation of PKC.
To increase the protein content of PKC as feed ingredients.
To study the bioconversion of PKC as feed ingredients mediating by bacterial microorganism. INTRODUCTION Expected Results LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVES
Government encourage the animal feed factory to use local feed ingredients.
Purpose: to lower feed price and to reduce the importation bill of the country.
Alternative feed ingredients is vital. Balan, V., Rogers, C.A., Chundawat, S.P.S., Sousa, L.D., Slininger, P.J. and Gupta, R. et al. (2009). Conversion of extracted oil cake fibres into bioethanol including canola, sunflower, sesame, soy, and peanut for integrated biodiesel processing.Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 86, 157–165.
Cervero, J.M., Skovgaard, P.A., Felby, C., Sorensen, H.R. and Jorgensen, H. (2010). Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake for production of bioethanol. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 46, 177-184.
Devendra, C. (1977). Utilisation of feeding stuffs from the oilpalm. In: Feeding stuffs for Livestock in S. E. Asia.116-131.
Düsterhöft, E.M., Posthumus, M.A., &Voragen, A.G.J. (1992).Nonstarch polysaccharides from sunflower(Helianthus annuus) meal and palm kernel (Elaeisguineenis) mealpreparation of cell-wall material and extraction of polysaccharide fractions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 59, 151–160.
Düsterhöft, E. M., Bonte, A.W., &Voragen, A.G.J. (1993).Non-starch polysaccharides from sunflower (Helianthus-Annuus) meal and palm-kernel (Elaeis-Guineensis) meal investigation of the structure of major polysaccharides. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 63, 211–220.
Elferink, S.O., Driehuis, F., Gottschal, J. and Spoelstra, S. (2002). Manipulating silage fermentation. 10(3). Poultry production has led to high poultry feed demand annually.
The feed ingredients are contributing to the high importation bill of the country. BIOCONVERSION Bioconversion: convert an organic substrate into a valuable product using microorganism.
Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the process in bioconversion.
Bioconversion feed material can be made with fermentation technology.
Fermentation technology increase the nutritional value of a waste.
Crude protein content is improved by 36.97% using fermentation of PKC with Trichoderma viride compared with the PKC without fermentation.(Sukaryana, 2001). PALM KERNEL CAKE By-product after the kernel is extract to get the oil.
Malaysia has been the world largest producer and exporter of PKC and palm oil in the recent past.
PKC is a high energy feed with moderate amount of crude protein and fibre.
Supplies both protein and energy but, it is looked upon more as a source of protein SOURCE Table 1: Annual production of Palm Oil and PKC in Malaysia (Tonnes) Source:
Malaysian Department of Statistics, MPOB (2002)
Article of Palm Kernel Cake as Animal Feed Source:
The Nutritive Value of Palm Kernel Cake for Animal Feed
Department of Animal Science,
Faculty of Agriculture
Universiti Putra Malaysia Table 2: Summary of proximate analysis of PKC. Suitable and valuable source of feed for ruminants (Abu and Yeong, 1999 and Chin, 2002).
A potential component in feed formulation for non-ruminants.
As a substrate in solid state fermentation (SSF) for enzymes production.
As compost with goat manure and poultry droppings as nitrogen supplements (Kolade et al., 2006).
As a substrate to investigate the feasibility of a gas–solid fluidized bed bioreactor for the conversion of PKC to poultry feed. USES OF PKC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA Figure 1: The characteristics of lactic acid bacteria. Majority are mesophilic, which can grow at temperatures between 5°C and 50°C, with an optimum between 25°C and 40°C (Elferink et al., 2002).
All lactic acid bacteria are facultative aerobes, but some have a preference for anaerobic conditions. Proteases can either break specific peptide bonds, or break down a complete peptide to amino acids.
Habitat with high protein content is the best source to isolate and screen for the proteolytic microorganism. PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME Contains energy sources.
Protein is like building blocks for making animal and plant tissue.
Minerals which are used to build bones and teeth in chemical reactions.
Vitamins are compounds which help the body absorb and use other nutrients. POULTRY FEED A preference method for upgrading the quality of PKC which involves the use of microbes.
Cultivation of microorganisms on solid, moist substrates in the absence of free aqueous phase (Pandey, 2003).
It mimics the conditions that are prevalent under natural conditions. REFERENCES OUTLINE INTRODUCTION
PALM KERNEL CAKE
LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
SOLID STATE FERMENTATION