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History of Photography

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Camille Prior

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of History of Photography

Talbot
Daguerre’s direct-positive image-making method was an ideal fit for those visual conceptions. VS. The possibility that Talbot’s two-step, negative/positive print system was a more advantantageous process was not at first seriously considered.
Mesmerized the viewers with its (dagurerreotype) detailed, miniature, monochrome reflections of the world.

Herschel: “Certainly they surpass anything I could have conceived as within the bounds of reasonable expectation.” – Herschel’s word on Daguerreotype.

Limitations of Dagurreotype’s reproduction function. Then, they’ve realised the potentials of Talbot’s linkage of light and paper furnished a conceptual and technical vault that united printmaking and science.
-systematic distribution and transportation methods/ and displaying them in larger areas than before.
- Europe's youthful mentality and it’s infatuation with machines that made tasks easier to perform.
- With photographs being made with more speed and making multiple prints for books and valuable documents.

History of Photography
Still Life, daguerreotype by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, 1837; in the collection of the Société Française de Photographie, Paris.
Jerry Spagnoli
He worked with photo-based imagery. He has explored the potential of the Daguerreotype.
He developed a method and has been refined to present an introduction to his medium.
His work has been held in many museums including the Museum of Modern Art and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and many others.
Daguerre
Born November 18, 1787
Died July 10th, 1851

Daguerre's photographs
“In viewing the Daguerrotype’s mirrored surface often includes the viewer in the image..."
You can see yourself while viewing a daguerreotype, which is an exact copy of the subject in the photo.
Calotype EXCELLED in effect!

Photographers realized of this artistic potential on this medium.

The flexibility allowed photographers to “personalize” their work in their own style by manipulating the images before they were printed.

“Romantic Aesthetic” of Calotype. Zenith in 1800.
Romanticism, which prized emotional experience, was a reaction against the Church,
emphasised on the picturesque and featured rushing brooks, overgrown foliage, and tumbledown structures.

Talbot’s image selections illustrate his belief that subject matter is “subordinate to the exploration of space and light”.



Technologies and philosophy
He was a romantic painter and print maker
Daguerreotype was a piece of copper polished with silver
1829 formed partnership with Joseph Nicephore Neipce
Both had come up with incomplete methods of creating images
Neipce died 1833 and his son took over
Francois Arago
1839 Daguerre and Neipce’s son arranged an agreement with the Government of France
1838 Dageurre continued experiments
First image by Niepce
Jerry Spagnoli also works with regular photography however is more known for his Daguerreotypes.

He started to explore daguerreotypes in 1994.
Spagnoli's work includes historical events, for example the destruction of 9/11.

He is also recognized for his collaboration with Chuck Close.
http://www.galerie-photo.com/daguerreotype-jerry-spagnoli_en.html
http://penland.org/images/classes/summer%2014/pictures/spagnoli-Glass%203-27-12%20penland.jpg
Jesseca Ferguson
Is a pinhole photographer, living, working and also teaches in Boston, Massachusetts.


Natural light is her favourite light to photograph with. Therefore, her exposures can be very long.
Ferguson says that even though the camera is "blind", it "sees" in a mysterious way.
Chuck Close
Was an American painter and photographer.
Teamed up with Jerry Spagnoli to photograph artists

Close was fascinated by the clarity and detail daguerrotype.

http://freshandbold.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/chuck-close-portrait. jpg
Mark Osterman & France Scully Osterman
Mark is a photographic process historian

France has knowledge of early photographic processes.

http://www.museumofmemory.com/images/bio-2 .jpg
They give lectures and demonstrations all over the world. They are still active photographers.
http://www.collodion.org/M&F_portable_workshop72 .jpg
A photograph by Mark & France Osterman
http://www.collodion.org/SwayingBranches4x4 .jpg
- “Before 19th century, only the wealthy had the means to act on the desire to commemorate their likenesses. Industrial-age products, like the physionotrace and the camera ludica had begun to expand the picture making process, but the daguerreotype was the great equalizer… providing ordinary people with access to pictures of themselves and their loved ones.”
Photos were only available to the wealthy, and Daguerre changed that.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/3117/Still-Life-daguerreotype-by-Louis-Jacques-Mande-Daguerre-1837- in
The experience traveling backward and forward in time and space and seeing yourself in a photograph was a first for many people.
Philosophically speaking, it creates a new way of documenting the past.
- “The Daguerreotype immediately revealed the potential for photographic processes to replace hand-done procedures carried out by skilled artisans”
People preferred a photograph rather than a painting or a sculpture
Basically, the wide spread of Daguerreotype changed the way people viewed someone who created a portrait.
http://www.photohistory-sussex.co.uk/dagprocess .htm
A daguerreotype portrait of Louis Jacques Daguerre by John Jabez Edwin Mayall, in 1846
- “Matthew Brady helped pioneer the celebrity portrait.”
This medium of art was something of value to celebrities
Samuel Morse, the inventor of the single wire telegraph and the morse code.
http://www.squidoo.com/ Matthew-Brady
- “The frankness and voyeuristic quality of the camera allowed it to take over the underground market or erotic art”
Talbot & Patent laws
Talbot developed the 2 step negative/positive print system, also known as the calotype, however received no honors for his invention
He demanded high licensing fees and this made this process at first unprofitable.
He would mail his images to Constance Talbot, to have them printed, therefore made her the 1st female photographic processor.
Constance Talbot
http://www.kiplinhall.co.uk/genealogy/gp30. htm
Nicolaas Henneman, Talbot's valet, became his photo assistant and business manager
http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:Nicolaas-henneman.jpg&filetimestamp=20070715222402 &
In 1849, German-born William and Frederick Langenheim made a deal with Talbot for the American rights to his process in the hopes of promoting their studio.
Calotypist estblish a practice.
It is widely done in France.
Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evard became the most successful calotypist. He discovered how to eliminate streaking and having more highlights and greater detail in the shadows, and many more.
Blanquart created albumen-coated paper
Used by people from 1850-end of 19th century
However there was a problem with fading
Blanquart -1851 opened a printing enterprise and created an assembly-line to do develop his prints.

Blanquart-Evrards Lille printing establishment Produced print for three important archeological books : Maxime du Camp's Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrue. J.B Greene's Le Nil Auguste Salzmann's Jerusalem. Also edited/ published Mélanges photographiques and Galerie photo-graphic also provided printing service for other photographers
Thomas Sutton
He really liked Blanquart-Evrard printing improvements, and thought them superior to other catotypes. He also wrote book on it, A Handbook to Photography on Paper.


Thomas Sutton

http://www.luminous-lint.com/imagevault/html_34001_34500/34480_std .jpg
Sutton wanted to find a way to fix the negatives that had blacked out skies
His drive to resolve issues of permanence and improve the calotype's prints, assisted photographers to find their own process, and become recognized as an art for

Le Grey (1820-1884)

He improved waxing of calotype
-method allowed paper to be prepared in advance
-greater retention for detail
-reduced exposure time, permitting subjects to move
-he eliminated the problem of moving foilage Charles Nègre (1820-1880)
-Painted and took photographs as well
The Little Ragpicker (1851) was regarded as being no longer a photograph but rather envisioned act of art.
He explored working people, ordinary scenes of daily life
http://web.ncf.ca/~ek867/atget.ragpicker .jpg
Daguerreotype:
• physical container of information, having the properties of both a two-dimensional image and a three-dimensional object. It uses silver surface of a copper plate which mirrors the unparallel vision
Plates:
• Surface is like a mirror
• After they produce the image, they can fix it
• Different sizes of plate
•Whole plate 6-1/2” x 8-1/2”
•Half plate 4-1/4” x 5-1/2”
•Quarter plate 3-1/4” x 4-1/4”
•Sixth plate 2-3/4” x 3-1/4”
•Ninth plate 2” x 2-1/2”
•Sixteenth plate 1-3/8” x 1-5/8”
The Early Practitioners: exposure times were too long for portraits, so still taking buildings – this is when chemistry began to breakthrough
Portraits on a sunny day would have one minute exposure while on a cloudy day it was 8 minutes.


John Fredrick Goddard
- hired to increase the plate’s light sensitivity of the daguerreotype process – this would make portraits more practical and not so unnatural looking
- Antonie Francois Jean Claudet also invented a chlorine and iodine vapour accelerator to help develop the process of a portrait (1841).
- Armand Hippolyte Louis Goddard
- Calotype: (Talbotype) invented by Henry Fox Talbot in 1841
- Characteristics of Paper:
-Paper coated with silver iodide
- Visually:
• Had texture and fibers of the paper
• Slightly grainy or fuzzy quality




http://www.fionnbharr.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/coffeepot2-diptych-s .jpg
Ian Ruhter From Chase Jarivs
A professional snowboarder turned staff photographer and commercial shooter for the most respected magazines in the snowboarding industry.
He had a vision of a style of photograph that had never been taken nor developed. He dreamed to create this piece of artwork.
He spent all his savings and converted a box truck into a tintype camera. He has travels around the USA creating huge wetplate processed tintype photographs.
Here is an example of his work:




http://blog.chasejarvis.com/blog/2012/12/live-photoshoot-using-the-worlds-biggest-camera-the-power-of-personal-work-chasejarvislive-wednesday-december -19th/
1784 - Argand Oil Lamp could concentrate a beam of light to project images onto a screen
Artificial light
1826- Thomas Drummond creates limelight. more accurate & powerful than oil lamp.
The acceptance of the camera-projected image as fact chaned the perception of the magic lantern from toy to tool.
Kerosene lamps, 1859

Sir Humphrey Davy of England invented the first electric carbon arc lamp in 1801. The harsh and brilliant light was found most suitable for public areas, such as Cleveland's Public Square, being around 200 times more powerful than contemporary filament lamps.
Telescopes/Microscopes
They offered great insight into the underlying scientific structures of nature
Because of their great detail, the daguerreotype was accepted as a viable scientific representation

By the 1840’s William H. Goode made daguerreotypes with a telescope
By the Telescopes and microscopes are possibly the innovation that led to modern day photographic lenses



The printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto paper or cloth. The device applies pressure that rests on an inked surface made of movable type, thereby transferring the ink.
Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as among the most influential events in the second millennium.


Printing Press
Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a printing system by both adapting existing technologies and making inventions of his own.

A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to about 2,000 by typographic block-printing and a few by hand-copying
In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society.

Now that book production was a more commercial enterprise, the first copyright laws were passed to protect what we now would call intellectual property rights.
In 1620, the English philosopher Francis Bacon wrote that these three inventions, firearms, the nautical compass and the printing press "changed the whole face and state of the world".

In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, up to 2,400 impressions per hour.
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