Transcript of Art of the Middle Ages
Art of the Middle Ages By, Elisabeth Sudbey BYZANTINE ART ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS FAMOUS ARTISTS Giotto (Giotto de Bone) Filippo Brunelleschi Donatello was a famous medival Italian sculpture. He was born sometime during 1386, and died on December 14, 1466. He was working towards creating a new system of perspective. Donatello was also one of the first Renaissance Artists interested in the classical art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome, and became the first of the Renaissance artists to create a nude statue. Some of his most famous pieces of art include David, Mary Magdalene, and Madonna. HISTORY ON ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS The illuminated manuscripts contained Medieval religious art which was created mostly for he Christian Catholic Church. Christian art and icongraphy all began about 200 years after the death of Christ. The earliest recorded manuscript was from the period 400A.D. They are classified into their historic periods and types such as the Byzantine manuscripts, Romanesque manuscripts, Gothic manuscripts, and Renaissance manuscripts. A person who creates illuminated manuscripts is called an Illuminator. The artists could be either male or female. They were members of the monasteries or convents. The person who actually writes the manuscripts are called scribes and the illuminators who just painted the manuscripts. When creating an illuminated manuscript you usually use ink, and write on parchment or vellum. You make parchment by brushing, stretching, and drying either a calf, sheep, or goat skin. Vellum was just a nice quality piece of parchment made from the skin of a an unsplit calf. They were the most common form of medieval art. "The word illuminated comes from the Latin word 'illuminare' which means enlighten, adorn, or illuminate" and is presented by manuscripts filled with brilliant colors. Byzantine art rose to have a magnificent appearance under the rule of the Macedonian Emperors(876-1056), but then declined in 1453. Since then it has yet to exist up to present times. Byzantine art is displayed beautifully in the St.Sophia church. The interior of the church is decorated with mosaics upon a golden background. Unfortunately, the mosaics were destroyed, but were replaced later by others. Some of the walls were adorned with designs of grape vines with golden leaves. The alter was made of gold material and precious stones. Pictures of animals were along the walls of the porch leading to the entrance. The Artists were members of religious houses such as monasteries. The art was completely flat and one dimensional, so there was no perspective. It had a sombre tone to it, and had no shadows. Donatello di Niccolo di Betto Bardi Giotto was a famous Italian medieval architect, sculpture, and, artist of the early Renaissance. Noli me Tangere, The Last Supper, and Madonna and Child are just some of his most famous paintings. In the 1300's, he was called to Rome by Pope Benedict Xl who commissioned him to paint a mosaic over the entrance to St.Peter's(the navicella) Filippo Brunelleschi was a famous Italian medieval artist architect, and sculpture. He lived from 1377-1446. He was trained as a sculpture and goldsmith in a Florentine shop. In 1398, he passed his examination and became a guild goldsmith. He is known for building or rebuilding military fortifications in some Italian cities such as Pisa, Rencine, Castellira, Vicopisano, and Rimini. MEANING OF COLOR IN CHRISTIAN ART MORE FAMOUS ARTISTS Michelangelo Buanarroti Michelangelo Buanarroti is said to be the greatest artist who has ever lived. He was born on March 6, 1475, and died on February 18, 1564. Besides being a genius, another event helped him to rise even higher. "He was born during the most fertile period of time in Western art in the most artistically developed country of the time: Renaissance Italy." He was also a man who lost his temper often, and preferred to work alone "rather then suffer incompetent assistants." MICHELANGELO'S ARTWORK AND SCULPTURES The Statue of David SISTINE CHAPEL The Sistine Chapel took over 4 years for Michelangelo to paint, from July of 1508 to October of 1512. He worked bueno fresco which is a very difficult method to work with. Also, he suffered many setbacks because of the war going on at the time and the damp weather. It is all just a myth that he lied on his back while working. He actually created a scaffolding system that was sturdy enough to hold the workers. As a result from being in an awkward position, his arms, back, and neck ached a lot and he claimed that his vision was permanently screwed up. MEDIEVAL WOMEN ARTISTS Meaning of colors The meanings of the following symbols are of sacred significance. The meaning of color in Christian art began about two centuries after Jesus Christ died. The colors meanings are based on the classical style and imagery used by the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans. During the Medieval art icongraphy(image writing)period, it began to relate more closely to the text from the Bible. Symbols and Icons "A religious icon is an image or symbolic representation with sacred significance." The majority of ordinary people were illiterate and painting was unknown back in the early times when the colors surrounding Christistian art had meanings, origins, and ancient traditions. Names of some of the Medieval women artists Claricia-German female artist and nun who illuminated manuscripts in the 12th century.Full transcript
Herrad of Landsberg-(1125-1195)Abbess of Hoenburg.
Ende-11th century nun and illuminator
Guda or Guta-German 12th century nun and illuminator
Diemud or Diemudis-(1057-1130) 12th century Bavarian nun and illuminator
Abbess Hitda Medieval women are hard to research because they were dominated by men during Medieval times. Women had few options to choose to live their lives by. They could either become a Nun and enter a religious institution or convent, become married, or become a Medieval religious artist. The women who became Nun's were mostly responsible for the making of the illuminated manuscripts. This Statue is of the biblical hero David who defeated the Goliath. The original statue was supposed to be placed in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence,Italy. But instead a copy stands in front, and the real statue is in a Florence Museum in Accademia. ILLUMINATORS Monk Nun CREATING A MANUSCRIPT Byzantine manuscript Gothic manuscript White-symbolizes purity, virginity, innocence, and virtue.
Yellow-symbolizes renewal, hope, light, and purity. Color for the season of Easter.
Orange-symbolizes courage, endurance, and strength. Representing fire and flame.
Green-symbolizes nature, fertility, hope, and bountifulness. Color fore the season Epiphany.
Red-symbolizes power and importance as well as the Holy Spirit. Season color of Pentecost.
Black-symbolizes death,fear,and ignorance. Indicates authority and power. Color of black Friday.
Brown-symbolizes earth,poverty, and humanity. Associated with monastic life.
Blue-symbolizes heavenly grace, hope, and good health.
Purple- symbolizes penitence. Associated with royalty. Color of Advent. Women's Choices The work of the Middle Ages women artists, who were nuns, remains largely anonymous. This is because, when a women became a nun and entered a convent,they had to forget their names and their previous life and names no longer existed. Also, it would have been against their religious vows to claim ownership to any of the illuminations that they painted. Claricia's work BIBLIOGRAPHY www.newadvent.org