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Copy of Do Watch Listen Say

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Nicole Flanagan

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Do Watch Listen Say

To strengthen social and communication skills through targeting basic communicative functions, socioemotional skills and basic conversational skills.

"Professionals and parents need to understand the thinking patterns, social perspectives, and sociemotional qualities of children with autism in order to help them." (Quill, 2000)
From Roots to Results
Do Watch Listen Say
Presented By: Nicole Flanagan

Anyone can implement this curriculum. Dr. Quill provides a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of ASD in order to impart a level of understanding the driving forces of behaviors and thoughts. The principals and practices can be applied at school or in the home.
Cost of Implementation
$59.95- Brookes Publishing Co.
about $50.00- other book stores
Cost of materials needed for lessons and interventions
Target Population
The curriculum was designed for:
Young children (but can be used with any age)
Children with a wide array of communication skills, including those who utilize AAC devices.
EBP mean that while interventions are targeted towards individuals with ASD, the curriculum has the potential to benefit any individual with social or communication difficulties.

Do Watch Listen Say
Provides educators, parents and clinicians assessments and interventions to target the development of social and communication skills
Developed in 2000 by Dr. Kathleen Ann Quill
intended to incorporate evidence based practices with educational practices
Specifically targets basic communicative functions, socioemotional skills and basic conversational skills
utilizes principals from both ABA and developmental interventions
Framework, not a regimented curriculum
Dr. Kathleen Ann Quill
Founder of the Autism Institute
Author of a multitude of publications including research studies, curriculum, journal articles and books.
Conducted research on developmental differences in Autism
Taught at University of Massachusetts and Lesley University
Lectures internationally and has conducted trainings in over 20 countries, given the keynote address for 10 international organizations, and presented at over 200 conferences
on the editorial board for: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
on the Advisory Board for the Autism Spectrum Quarterly
the Board of Directors for Autism Asperger Publishing Company

Philosophy and Theroy
The framework utilizes both principals rooted in Applied Behavioral Analysis, ABA, and developmental intervention models.
Acar, C., & Diken, I. (2012). Reviewing instructional studies conducted using video modeling to children with autism. Educational sciences: theory & practice, 12(4), 2731-2735 .
Ingersol, B., Meyer, K., Bonter, N., & Jelinek, S. (2012). A comparison of developmental social–pragmatic and naturalistic behavioral interventions on language use and social engagement in children with autism. Journal of speech, language, and hearing research, 55, 1301–1313 .Koyama, T., & Wang, H. (2011). Use of activity schedule to promote independent performance of individuals with autism and other intellectual disabilities: A review. Research in developmental disabilities, 32, 2235-2242.
Laushey, K., & Heflin, J. (2000). Enhancing social skills of kindergarten children with autism through the training of multiple peers as tutors. Journal of autism and developmental disorders , 30(3), 183-193.
Mohammad , K., Clark, B., Ospina, M., Seida, J., Smith, V., & Hartling, L. (2010). Social stories[tm] to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Autism : the international journal of research and practice, 14(6), 641 - 662.
Quill, K. (2000). Do-watch-listen-say: Social and communication intervention for children with autism. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

The assessment serves three functions: “to provide an estimate of developmental functioning, describe skills needed for planning intervention, and to document development and progress over time
A skill should be targeted for intervention if:
General Skill Sequence
Typically developing child
Individual with ASD
Do Watch Listen Say
- cognitive- the ability to know what to do.
children use toys, objects and materials in the physical environment.
Exploration contributes to an understanding of how things are related.

- Socilization- the ability to watch others.
Children observe others.
Observation contributes to an understanding of how to imitate, share space, toys, and materials; take turns. Social observation contributes to understanding others' nonverbal social behaviors, such as gestures and emotional displays

Monitoring Progress
Quantitative and Qualitative measures for collecting data are provided.

the presence of the skill without prompts
generalization of the skill across adults, peers, and different social groups

Understanding the atypical trajectory of development of skills in the social and communicative domains to be defining symptoms of ASD, Do Watch Listen Say specifically assesses basic communicative functions, socioemotional skills and basic conversational skills. This allows the interventionist to specifically target areas in need of intervention. Theoretically acquired in a hierarchy, children should first learn to do, then watch, then listen, then say. Within each of these domains, core skills and subskills develop in hierarchy as well.
Children with autism often struggle to apply all of these constructs in conjunction with one another in social situations. Rather they may employ one or two at a time. For example: a child may know what to DO with blocks, however when with peers, she may focus all of her attention on WATCHING. Dr. Quill defines social mastery as the ability to apply these skills in conjunction with one another.
Applied Behavior Analysis
Interventions outlined in this curriculum manipulate antecedent stimuli and consequences to produce changes in behavior. These changes are then shaped, scaffolded and differentially reinforced to promote acquisition of skills.
Do Watch Listen Say
- Language- the ability to listen.
Children listen to others. They assign meaning to the objects in the environment, their own activities, and the activities of others.
They also assign meaning to and respond to the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of others.

- Communication-The ability to know what to say.
Children initiate and mantain reciprocal interactions.
They communicate messages that are relevant to the social context and others.

3 domains: inventory of core skills, social skills, communication skills
skills and subskills broken down into 9 domains

read the glossary

Complete the forms (using observations and interviews)

“a skill is considered as being present if it has been observed at least one time without prompts.” A skill can be considered generalized if the skill has been demonstrated “in five or more settings with at least one adult and one peer”
a skill is absent, needs to be generalized to peers, or requires generalization to multiple contexts

Dr. Quill recommends creating 1-3 objectives to target in each domain. She also recommends choosing at least one priority objective from each of the nine core skill areas. Goals should be chosen to mirror milestones in typical development. Goals should then be prioritized.
Develop a Framework
Research Based??
NOT an evidence-based practice
uses of many evidence-based practices
incorporates: video modeling, visual supports, prompting, reinforcement, differential reinforcement, time delay, discrete trail training and social narratives. It also includes principals from functional behavior analysis, functional communication training, naturalistic interventions and peer mediated interventions.
Video Modeling
DWLS uses video modeling to highlight social cues as well as social and communicative behaviors
study conducted by Cimen Acar and Ibrahim Diken compiled results from 31 studies published in peer reviewed journals, that looked at teaching various skills using video-modeling to individuals with ASD.
Study found video-modeling was effective on teaching many behaviors or skills such as social skills, play skills, language and communication skills, functional skills, self-care skills, daily life skills. (Acar & Diken, 2012)
It was also noted that research was limited by a lack of comparison studies looking at video modeling in contrast to live modeling. Social validity was also of concern.
Social Stories
DWLS uses of social stories as a format for teaching social perspective and expectations

Mohammad Karkhaneh, and colleagues conducted a systematic review of controlled trials evaluating Social Stories with the use of children with ASD

social stories benefited individuals in terms of skills such as “game playing skills, story comprehension, generalized social comprehension, facial emotion learning and labeling, social skills, aggressive behavior, and communication skills

studies only looked at short term improvements, neglected to look at how social stories contribute to generalization and maintenance of skills, failed to measure the effectiveness of social stories across a gradient of structured environments and implementation frequencies

Peer Mediated Instruction
DWLS utilizes Peer Mediated Instruction in several activities to teach social skills.
Kelle Laushey and Juane Heflin conducted a study to look at the efficacy of using peer buddies to enhance social skills in kindergarten children with autism.
Observed social skills displayed by kindergartners when appointed a peer buddy, and when in passive proximity to a peer.
improvement in social skills when using peer buddies as measured by an increase in turn taking, higher tolerance of waiting and an increase in looking at the speaker. Students also displayed evidence of generalization of skills across peers

Visual Supports
Uses visual supports in the form of visual schedules, social stories, picture charts, and more to provide an understanding of social expectations
Takanori Koyama and Hui-Ting Wang published a review of 23 looking at how visual schedules provide individuals with autism and other intellectual disabilities with a level of independence.
69 participants ranging from preschool to adult
aprox. 60% ASD and 40% intellectual disability
Found that activity schedules were shown to improve independent task initiations, transitions, on task behavior, self management and self determination
Potential risks include: social validity, efficacy when introduced in the home, effect of technological format
Developmental Vs. ABA
Combination of interventions supported by research conducted in 2012.
Brooke Ingersoll, Katherine Meyer, Nicole Bonter, and Sara Jelinek published a design study to compare the “effects of a developmental social–pragmatic, naturalistic behavioral, and combined intervention on language type and function and social engagement in 5 children with autism”. (Ingersol, Meyer, Bonter & Jelinek, 2012)
The study found that naturalistic interventions that use direct elicitation of child language lead to greater short- term gains in the use of expressive language targets (Ingersol, Meyer, Bonter & Jelinek, 2012).
combined intervention methods were beneficial to only some children. The researchers noted that additional research was needed on the type of language that is best targeted by these interventions, as two children with phrase speech did not show a significant benefit in the study.
interventionist selects activities based upon the domains selected for intervention
activities, objectives and assessment all aligned
designed to be introduced in the most natural setting possible and reinforced across activities and environments.
Utilizes many evidence based practices
effective with children with a wide range of abilities including those who use AAC
Roots in developmental and ABA theories
acknowledges the atypical development of skills in children with ASD
fluid framework allows for professional expertise
cost effective
contains a myriad of developmental reference charts
provides comprehensive understanding of the disability
provides assessment guide
provides data collection methods
directly links assessment results to instructional goals and objectives and subsequently data collection
Potential Risks
not evidence based
assessment heavily relies on evaluator's observation skills
target skills as well as scope and sequence of activities depend upon the level of expertise of the interventionist
Assessment is not standardized, nor normed
Can not be used to determine need of services in certain school districts
Methodology Chart
Dr. Kathleen Ann Quill’s framework, Do Watch Listen Say, is highly appropriate tool to use in assessing and designing intervention for developing basic communicative functions, socioemotional skills and basic conversational skills in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Theory of Mind
Joint attention
Turn taking
appropriate social responses
recognizing the belongings and needs of others

Uses-social stories, visual cues, communication boards, activities, organizational supports
Executive Functioning
Supports include:
organizing the environment
visual schedules
social stories
picture charts
strategies for dealing with ritualistic and repetitive behaviors
choice boards
conversation books
play scripts
Central Coherence
Focuses on:
generalizing skills across settings and with a variety of people
perspective taking (social stories, video modeling, turn taking)
appropriate conversation topics and responses (combats idiosyncratic focus of attention)
imaginative play
Full transcript