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An Introduction to Disability in Higher Education for New Pr

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Marie Lalor

on 1 June 2015

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Transcript of An Introduction to Disability in Higher Education for New Pr

An Introduction to Disability in Higher Education for New Professionals
Foundations of Disability
~11% of undergraduate students are students with disabilities (GAO, 2008)
History of Disability in Higher Education
Frameworks for Disability
Disability Law in Higher Education
Variation in definitions
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Shift in 'disability' definition as students transition
Disability Types
4 Most Prevalent Types in Higher Education
Specific learning disabilities
Psychiatric disability
Health impairment/condition
*For definitions of other types of disabilities, see handout.
Wrapping Up
Adam Lalor adam.lalor@uconn.edu
Marie Lalor mlalor@conncoll.edu
Adam Lalor
University of Connecticut
Marie Lalor
Connecticut College

ACPA Annual Convention
April 2014

Strategies for Working with Students with Disabilities
Help students identify strengths beyond challenges
Assist in development of executive functioning skills
Developing schedules
Developing strategies to manage tasks and organize projects
Universal design
Foster self-determination/self-advocacy
It starts with you...
Increase your own awareness
Use person-first language
and challenge
your own attitudes, comfort and understanding of issues surrounding disability

Take a moment...
IDEA Definition
(A) In general.--The term `child with a disability' means a child--
(i) with mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance (referred to in this title as `emotional disturbance'), orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and
(ii) who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
(B) Child aged 3 through 9.--The term `child with a disability' for a child aged 3 through 9 (or any subset of that age range, including ages 3 through 5), may, at the discretion of the State and the local educational agency, include a child--
(i) experiencing developmental delays, as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in 1 or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication development; social or emotional development; or adaptive development; and
(ii) who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (2004)
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
The law defines a person as disabled if he or she:

"has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities,
has a record of such an impairment, or
is regarded as having such an impairment."

Rehabilitation Act (1973)
ADA Definition
A person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment.
ADA Amendments Act (2008)

Disabilities covered by the ADA are intentionally not specified in the Act.
Modern History
1944 - Veterans returning from WWII
1970s - Emergence of disability services professionals
1973 - Introduction of the Rehabilitation Act
1977 - Creation of AHEAD (Association on Higher Education and Disability)
1990 - Americans with Disabilities Act

Madaus (2011)
Adapted from Rieser (2000)
Essential Disability Law
Adapted from Think College (2012)
Specific learning disabilities
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.

visual and auditory processing disorders

Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullen (2009)
A persistent pattern of inattention and or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.
Hyperactive Type
Inattentive Type
Combined Type

American Psychiatric Association (2013)
Psychiatric disability
(a.k.a. mental disorder/disability)
Health impairment/
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—

(i) Is due to chronic health problems

(ii) Adversely affects educational performance.

IDEA (2004)

Examples Include
asthma diabetes epilepsy heart conditions hemophilia
leukemia sickle cell anemia
Definition of a mental disorder
A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress or disability in social, occupational, or other important activities. An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved on, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g. political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above. DSM-5 (2013)

Examples: Major Depressive Disorder, Eating Disorders, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Suicidal Behavior Disorder, Alcoholism, Panic Disorders

American Psychiatric Association (2013)
Universal Design
(for Learning)
Proactively increasing access:
- what individuals perceive (e.g., materials, lecture, etc.)
- how individuals approach learning and how they express what they know (e.g., through writing, drawing, etc.)
- why individuals learn and stay motivated (e.g., enjoy the topic, cultural significance, etc.)

Other types of Universal Design (e.g., UD for architecture, UDI)

Useful for students with and without disabilities

National Center on UDL (2013)
- the ability [and right] to make personal choices, regulate one's own life, and be a self-advocate (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 574)

Self-advocacy -
an individual’s ability to speak for oneself and one’s own needs (Furney, Carlson, Lisi, & Yuan, 1993, p.1))

Right to self-disclosure
Dignity of risk
Executive functioning difficulties
Frameworks of Disability
I am a Student with Dyslexia
I am so Much More...
I am an
If I pair up with another team member, we will create the most visually captivating, and informative bulletin board ever!
I am a
I am great at organizing and motivating team members to play off of each member's strengths so that we can accomplish anything.
I am a
I can help others make connections between different curricular and cocurricular experiences.
I am a multimodal presenter.
I am an Engaged Listener
The students I mentor feel like I am invested in them and know that I am a resource for them. In this way, I am an important ally in student affairs
I struggle with finding content for bulletin boards, doing research for my events, reviewing handbooks and reading emails.
The Larger
Campus Community
Include disability within your institution's definition of diversity (from prospectives to students to alumni to employees)
Help students with disabilities become aware of the legal changes that shift how they are supported in Higher Education. (Madaus & Shaw, 2004).
Helping students become aware of campus resources
Be aware.
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Scroll to bottom and click on “Rate this session”
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Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act, PL 110-325 § 3406 (2008).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013).
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Furney, K. F., Carlson,N., Lisi, D., Yuan, S., & Cravedi-Cheng, L. (1993). Speak up for yourself and your future. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009).
Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education
(11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).

Madaus, J. W. (2011). The history of disability services in higher education.
New Directions for Higher Education, 154
, 5-15. doi 10.1002/he.429

Madaus, J. W. & Shaw, S. F. (2004). Section 504: The differences in the regulations regarding secondary and postsecondary education.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 40
, 81-87.

National Center on Universal Design for Learning. (2013). The three principles of UDL. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/whatisudl/3principles

Rehabilitation Act, 28 CFR Sec. 36.104 (1973).

Rieser, R. (2000). History of our oppression. Why the social model in education is inclusive education. Paper presented at International Special Education Congress, Manchester, England.

Think College. (2012). Differences between high school and college. Retrieved from http://www.thinkcollege.net/for-families/high-school-v-college

U.S. Government Printing Office. (2008).
Higher education and disability: Education needs a coordinated approach to improve its assistance to schools in supporting students
(Publication no. GAO-10-33). Washington, DC: Author
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