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Water we doing?
Transcript of Water we doing?
Conflicts due to water?
Basic knowledge Water measurements
1 liter = 10 dl = 100 cl = 1000 ml
1 m3 = 1000 liters = 1 KL (kilo litre)
1m3 = 1m high x 1m tall x 1m deep
Water flow = liter/minutes
Water Cost international comparison
Cost per m3 water in US$
Germany 1.91 $
France 1.23 $
England 1.18 $
Italy 0.76 $
USA 0.51 $
Australia 0.50 $
Canada 0.40 $
Thailand 0.54 $
Source: UN Water report, Water tech Online, 2001
Water we doing ?
Earth (Put Put)
3% of your water footprint is at home. (150 litre/day)
97% of your water footprint is ‘invisible’, it is related to the products you buy in the supermarket.
3400 litre/day for agricultural products
1100 litre/day for industrial products
What is a process ?
Refreshing of basic knowledge about water
Ecological water aspects (Thailand/World)
Economical water aspects (Spa)
Water we doing ?
Economic viewpoint & Solutions
Spa (Put Put)
Water in a Spa
Water footprint per guest hour (litre/guest hour
Laundry (Chemicals & Water)
Chemicals & harmful substances
Storage - bunding
MSDS - Material saftey and data sheet
Green - Eco friendly - Bio degradable ????
Green washing ?
Adoption of best practice water management principles
Using treated waste water and storm water for non-potable
usage such as for gardens and water features.
Ensure distribution and irrigation systems are efficient and well maintained.
Leaks Maintenance and Detection Program will usually pay for itself in reduced water production costs (pumping) reduced future repair costs.
Track utility costs
Water related Risks
The colors of water
Rain water incorporated into a product – applies for food, T shirts, natural ingredients in Spa products........
Surface or groundwater incorporated into a product or service
Fossil water or paleo water is groundwater that has remained sealed in an aquifer for a long period of time
Water footprint of a T shirt
Thanks, Credit & Sources
This presentation is a collection of subjective viewpoints based on operational experience, environmental education and passion.
Due Credit & thanks for provided data as well as references:
1. Mr. Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Professor in Water Management – Water Footprint Network
2. White paper on Tourism & Water EarthCheck Research Institute
3. “No Hurry to tackle Wastewater”ISSUE - SEPTEMBER 2011 Asian Water
4. Mr. James Langer – Waste water professional since 15 years – Asia.
5. THE ARUP JOURNAL 3/2000, MR. John Senior, Yannawa Wastewater Project, Bangkok, Thailand
7. Without the hot Air by Mr. David JC MacKay
Water of Thailand
Water of Thailand:
Thailand Water dependance: 49%
Source : http://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2013/02/28/geocharts-water-challenges-around-the-world/
The problem with waste water in Thailand
Sources: Domestic - Agricultural - Industrial
Agricultural accounts for > 89% of water consumed &, therefore, waste water produced.
Every day, communities, factories and farms release 14.8 million cubic meters of waste water
Of that amount, only 3.2 million (21%) goes into the proper treatment systems.
Of this 1 million is in Bangkok area.
Mainly domestic waste water being treated, most agricultural waste being discharge untreated
Waste water In Thailand
101 municipal waste water treatment plants in Thailand.
8 in Bangkok treating 1 million m3/d with another 2 planned.
In the provinces – 20 plants are not working; and another 28 not treating adequately, so only 45 working satisfactorily
Discharge largely to river, no effective water reuse program.
Only removed readily biodegradable organics, solids, nitrogen and phosphorus.
No effective control of hormones, antibiotics, heavy metals, persistent organics
Municipal Waste water in Thailand
Screening - removal of plastics, wood and other debris
Primary treatment – settlement
Activated sludge treatment (sometimes with nutrient removal)
Fixed film bio reactors (less employed, more suitable for small plants)
Tertiary treatment – sand filtration, micro filtration, etc rarely employed
Treatment technologies employed
employed in BMA
Industrial waste water treatment limited to industrial parks (Hemeraj, etc)
Again, limited treatment effectiveness and many dysfunctional.
Poor enforcement of discharge standards by PCD.
Difficulty in collecting tariff from dischargers
Very limited treatment outside industrial parks.
No treatment by small shop-house businesses before discharge to municipal system.
No removal of heavy metals and persistent organics.
No treatment of pesticides & herbicides
Heavy nutrient (fertiliser rich) run-off direct from farmland to river
Indication of poor irrigation practices & inefficiency / wastage
Big issue with fancy golf-courses.
Animal slurries also directly contaminate watercourses
High nutrient contamination (P & N)
Anaerobic digestion employed with large / intensive farms
largely dysfunctional at myriad of small holdings
High copper levels in pig slurry
Problem of where to ‘dump’large quantities of waste residue
Resorts tend to use small scale biological treatment package plants.
Can be poorly maintained and often just for show.
Solids disposal often not done – clogs up system and treatment rendered ineffective.
Wide evidence of deliberate pollution
Very little grey-water reuse
Spas within hotels / resorts don’t treat – staff largely blissfully unaware
Spas and resorts
FUNDAMENTALLY IN CRISIS
Water is taken as a god-given right and is in abundance
In practice, good quality water (and rainfall) is scarce and ignorance on the importance of water quality is endemic, even within the water authorities!
Regulations exist but enforcement is very poor
Assets are limited and largely poorly managed & maintained
Polluter largely does not pay
Conclusion Waste water
Tourist numbers: Thailand
2013 -24,5 Mio. arrivals (1.1 Trillion THB Rev) - 2015 -28 Mio. arrivals (1.3 Trillion Rev.)
Source Minister of Tourism, Skall Brunch Dusit Thani July 2013.
Strategy of TAT: DISCO
Tourist numbers: Asia
2011 - 216 Million International Tourist in Asia Pacific.
Pata: annual growth of 5% in tourist arrivals
2015 – 300 Million annual Tourists arrivals
Population growth in Asia
till 2023 – 500 Million
Water use: Asia
Liter per guest night
Asia, Domestic Water use 146 liter / person / day
Asia, Non agricultural, Water use 308 liter /person / day
Asia, Tourism Water use 800 – 1800 liter /guest night
Tourist Water use: how
Drinking, Washing, Toilet + Swimming pools, Gardens, Cleaning the facilities.
Water use is seasonal – refer to Waste water treatment
Tourism has higher water use but pays same amount of charges (as charges are fixed)
Subsidized by general population
No statistics for tourism water use
Cutting edge developments:
EPA to make water use of companies public accessible
PUMA, first environmental P&L Statement 2010 1.08 US$/m3
Daniel Koeppel Associates Co. Ltd.
Environmental sustainability specialist for the hospitality industry.
Water of the earth
860 miles diameter of water bubble
(1,386,000,000 cubic kilometers (km3))
97% salt water 2% fresh ‘n’ frozen 1% for daily need
Solutions - What & How
What you need:
Knowledge & Leadership
How you do it:
Private sector vs. Government
Environmental sustainability certification
What you measure you can manage combines all 3 (Org, Tech, Behave)
Earthcheck has Spa Sector Bench marking
Activity Measures for Spa:
Guest Treatment hours (in hours)
Area under roof (m2)
ES Policy, NRG, Water, Waste, Community,
Paper, Cleaning, Pesticides
Sector specific: Facilities, Water sources,
Treatment, Cleaning Products, Vehicle Mgmt,
Wellness of employees
Leadership: Monkey see – Monkey do !
Training: Increase your own knowledge get Water literate and provide opportunity for staff to learn about water conservation and efficiency.
Develop staff programs that provide reward and recognition for excellence in water management and stewardship.
Develop a guest education program. See sample for shower time reduction.
Note inside hotel shower to turn off water when applying shampoo
saves 70% of water
by Daniel Koeppel
Water footprint of a Hamburger
Water & Energy
How much water per kw/h ?
14 - 28 Liter per 1 kw/h
Implication of drought on energy
Water flow reduction
Photovoltaic powered desalination plant 120/240/850 liters / hour
Photovoltaic powered purification plant - 30 m3 / day
Bio plastic bottled water
Water related risks
Water use per guest night
Number of livestock on planet: 150 Billion
Samples of daily products and their water footprint
Source: White paper, Water, Earthcheck
Reduce water flow by 20 - 60 %
Daniel Koeppel Associates Co. Ltd.
Hospitality management since 1985
In Asia since 1992
Master degree in Environmental Management & Technology
Solution overview - What
What first ?
Knowledge and Leadership
Support a cutting edge project
E.g. Skyline Spirulina
Thank you !