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Family Violence Across the Lifespan

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Mackenzie Williams-Broomfield

on 15 February 2015

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Transcript of Family Violence Across the Lifespan

Family Violence
Across the Lifespan
Risk Factors in the inter-generational cycle:
Article: Childhood Aggression and Educational Attainment
Inter-generational transmission theory
Breaking the cycle


Revictimization
Dementias
Adulthood
Emerging and Early (18 yrs - 40 yrs)
Middle (40 yrs - 65 yrs)
Late (65 + yrs)
Prenatal, Infancy, and Early Childhood
(Ages 0- 6)
Middle Childhood
Adolescence
(13-18 years)

Cycle of Violence
Through the Lifespan

Cognitive development
Elder Abuse
a symptom, not a disease
most common cause is Alzheimer's, but also caused by illnesses and drug reactions
anger and aggression is a common feature
up to 96% of dementia patients demonstrated aggressive behavior over course of their illness
common triggers include events in environment, discomfort, and confusion
victims suffer same effects: injury, depression, anxiety, and PTSS
Poverty
Single/absent parent families
Parental age
Parenting skills
Level of education
Mental Illness
Substance abuse
30 year longitudinal study
Direct and indirect links to childhood aggression and family violence in adult years
Found a link between childhood aggression/ antisocial behavior and educational attainment
Low educational attainment is linked to creating other factors that put people at risk of family violence
Long term, stable relationships
Secure home environment
Emotional stability
Financial stability
Social support
Parental education
Jackson, J. L., & Mallory, R. (2009). Aggression and violence among elderly patients, a growing health problem. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(10), 1167-1168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-009-1099-1
Temcheff, C. E., Serbin, L. A., Martin- Storey, A., Stack, D. M., Hodgins, S., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2008). Continuity and pathways from aggression in childhood to family violence in adulthood: a 30- year longitudinal study. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 231- 241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9147-2
Osterwalder, H. U. (2010). Alzheimer's disease. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/news/2010/02/100203_dementia.shtml
form of social learning theory that is aimed at predicting interpersonal violence and aggression among intimate partners
being witness to or experiencing violence within the home during childhood is likely to lead to future violence or victimization in adulthood
intimate partner violence is learned and transmitted through direct and indirect witnessing of violence within the family of origin
only 1 in 5 disclose
58% of victims decline help
estimate: 2% - 10%
forms: physical, sexual, psychological, neglect, and financial exploitation
signs (impacts): depression, fear, anxiety, unexplained injuries, dehydration/hunger, poor hygiene/pressure sores, missing money/personal items
higher risk factors for physical/psychological abuse: shared living, social isolation, demented individuals
living alone = increased risk for neglect & financial exploitation

Donovan, K., & Regehr, C. (2010). Elder abuse: Clinical, ethical, and legal considerations in social work practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 38(2), 174-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10615-010-0269-2
Lachs, M. S., & Pillemer, K. (2004). Elder abuse. The Lancet, 364(9441), 1263-1272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(04)17144-4
(Ages 7-12)
Experiencing family violence in middle childhood or younger can often result in the child developing some type of mental illness.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Constant stresses can damage the hippocampus (presubiculum and subiculum), damaging the child's ability to manage stress and create a feedback loop that follows high levels of cortisol with more cortisol.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Opositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Studies have found high correlation between children between 7-12 who've experienced family violence and children diagnosed with ADHD and ODD. WHY?

Grizelda. (n.d.). Automated phone system cartoon 1 of 13. [Cartoon]. Retrieved from http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/a/automated_phone_system.asp
Social
Impacts
Dean, A. (2011). Rejection just ahead green road sign with dramatic storm clouds and sky. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.photodune.net/item/rejection-green-road-sign-over-storm-clouds/293746
Cognitive
impacts
Getty Images. (n.d.). Thinking mind made with gears. [Illustration]. Retrieved from http://www.nzfvc.org.nz/sites/nzfvc.org.nz/files/images/Brain%20in%20wheels_0.jpg
Miles, S. (2013). Lose lose dice. [Illustration]. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/the-paradox-of-domestic-violence
Emotional Development
Low self-esteem and self worth- without the feeling of being loved by family, security in a child's own personality can be damaged
Inferiority, lack of self-efficacy
Childhood Depression
Mistrust
Behavioral / Relational
Attachment Disorder/ Reactive attachment disorder: volatile responses to attempted intimacy, less able to develop close relationships
Behavior may also become a barriers to social relationships
Oversensitivity to stress can cause severe overreaction to even minimal stimuli
Inability to focus on mundane tasks- ADHD and PTSD both play a role
Betrayal Trauma:
Interpersonal violations perpetrated by individuals whom the victim cares for, depends on, or trusts, will be remembered and processed differently than violations perpetrated by individuals with whom the victim does not have a close connection.
Lawton, I. (2013). Breaking the cycle of violence. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.soulseeds.com/grapevine/2013/09/breaking-the-cycle-of-violence/
Gobin, R. L. (2012). Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(2), 152-174. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.642752
Lancer, D. (2012). The truth about domestic violence and abusive relationships. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=46511
Fluke, N. (2013). Raising children and continuing the cycle of dominance and power. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://insufferablecunt.wordpress.com/2013/09/23/raising-children-continuing-the-cycle-of-dominance-and-power/
The Campus. (2013). Purple ribbon. [Illustration]. Retrieved from http://www.coscampusonline.com/2012/10/24/domestic-violence-awareness-event/
maladaptive interpersonal schemas = inadvertently seek out unhealthy relationships
survival mechanisms = difficulty detecting betrayal in later significant relationships
strong association between history & revictimization
2 - 3x more likely to experience various forms of interpersonal victimization
childhood emotional abuse = revictimization & perpetration of relationship violence
leads to higher rates of anxiety, alexithymia, & dissociation
women experiencing SRV = overly nurturing, nonassertive, & responsible in relationships
Gobin, R. L. (2012). Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(2), 152-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.642752
abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
effects on cortical development = deficits in executive functioning (prefrontal) & nonverbal reasoning
survival mechanisms = cognitive adaptations
interpersonal schema distorted
Physical effects
Emotional effects
Research has indicated that the effects of domestic
violence during pregnancy plays a key role in the development
throughout the lifespan.

Some of the common concerns during these pregnancies
are whether or not the mother is receiving
appropriate prenatal care and if she is turning to substances
to cope?




Childhood Sexual Abuse
> verbal fluency & visual memory
> immediate word recall & global cognitive function
* Resiliency effect?
*Arousal & vigilance = plasticity & cognitive reserve
Resiliency in middle childhood
Activities that give the child a sense of accomplishment and confidence
Supportive friendships
substantial impairments in social functioning & social skills
view of self: incompetent & unworthy
view of others: rejecting & incapable of meeting their needs
Teachers or other supportive adults that take an interest in the child's life
*views = social rejection
Childhood Sexual Abuse
risky sexual behaviors, drug use, & prostitution
better educated
less likely to be married
In-Utero:

Delays in brain growth
Early labor and delivery
Low birth weight
Infancy/Early Childhood:
predisposed to depression, anxiety, somatization and PTSD
psychological
Impacts
Cognitive
Retrieved from http://www.diminishthestigma.wordpress.com/2012/11/10/post-traumatic-stress-disorder
Internal state changes with level of perceived threat
Babies as young as 6 weeks show response to violence
Traumatic memory is formed and involves storage, as well as recall
All kids use dissociation to some degree during trauma
Some children start displaying early signs of PTSD.
Not every infant or young child affected by family violence handles their trauma in same way. We do know the following and continue to learn as we go.
Asthma
Heart disease
Eating/sleeping disorders
While it may take some time to see the
physical effects present themselves; research has indicated
some of the following occurring in children born from
domestic violence.
report poorer health & mental health = 'perceived'
> psychotropic medication use
smokers/drinkers
numerous difficulties across various relationships
distorted perceptions of trust & safety
lack of secure attachment = impacts interpersonal relationships
Not every child is affected the same way. It is important
to recognize that some children may internalize their
feelings, while others may act out inappropriately.

Infants may be: Inconsolable and Irritable
Also related to an improper attachment to the caregiver.

Young children may experience extreme sadness,
fears/phobias or anger directed at their parents or
other children.

Childhood Sexual Abuse
deficits accurately identifying & labeling emotions
deficits in recognition of/response to threat cues
Assessment and Intervention
- Many children start to develop symptoms or changes
in their behavior during preschool.

- To properly assess the situation we should look at
the child's exposure to domestic violence (past and present).

- Treat the entire family and heal inter-generational trauma

- Increase government funding for trauma education & prevention

- Decrease mental health funding to treat the effects of the trauma
Antisocial behaviour, shortened attention span, lowered IQ.
Behavioural transitions may force a premature end to adolescence
via early exits from conventional teenage roles and early entrance into adulthood
Premature behavioural transitions in adolescence are called Precocious role exits
These role exits can include dropping out of school, leaving home, adolescent pregnancy or
childbirth, and being suicidal.
Role of institutionalization in a juvenile or criminal justice facility.
Behavioural Changes
About 40 million children under the age of 14 years are estimated to suffer from abuse and neglect (World Health Organization 2001).
Lead exposure can make children suffer irreversible brain alterations that make them more likely to commit violent crimes as young adults
Impulsive youth behavior has been linked to a gray matter growth surge just before puberty, followed by rapid white matter growth from ages 12–16
PTSD is more common in adolescents than children

Effects on Cognitive Development
Bypass the emerging adulthood phase, a period of the life course that involves identity exploration and development
Psychological control predisposes adolescents to peer victimization
Dampens the individuation process of adolescents from primary care givers and devastates their sense of self (Barber et al. 2005)
Interferes with the proper acquisition of social skills important to management during peer conflicts.
Facilitates adoption of manipulative skills and relationally aggressive strategies among peers.

Psychological Effects
Early difficulties with emotion regulation place young people at substantial risk for later psychological difficulties such as:
Both depression and suicide behavior in adolescence
adult depression
Anxiety
Anger
Aggression
Psychosocial Effects
Family Therapy
Anger management
Parenting skills
Non-physical means of discipline
Social and regulation skill training
Training parents and youth to be aware of their conflict and negative emotion patterns


How can it be prevented?
Temcheff, C. E., Serbin, L. A., Martin- Storey, A., Stack, D. M., Hodgins, S., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2008). Continuity and pathways from aggression in childhood to family violence in adulthood: a 30- year longitudinal study. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 231- 241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9147-2
WHAT ELSE?
References
Ahmed, S., Koenig, M. A., & Stephenson, R. (2006). Effects of domestic violence on perinatal and early-childhood mortality: Evidence from North India. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1423-1428. http://www .dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.066316
Carpenter, D. O., & Nevin, R. (2010). Environmental causes of violence. Physiology & Behavior, 99(2), 260-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.09.001
Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System. (2009). Potential impact of violence on infants & toddlers. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from http://www.lfcc.on.ca/HCT_SWASM_19.html
Children Without a Voice USA. (2011, September 22). First impressions: Exposure to violence and a child’s development [Video file]. Retrieved from
Cochran, J. K., Sellers, C. S., Wiesbrock, V., & Palacios, W. R. (2011). Repetitive intimate partner victimization: an exploratory application of social learning theory. Deviant Behavior, 32, 790- 812. http://dx.doi.org/10 .1080/01639625.2010.538342
Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital. (2010). Maternal exposure to domestic violence and pregnancy and birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Journal of Womens Health, 19(11), 2017-2031. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2010.2051
Dixon, L., Brown, K., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2009). Patterns of risk and protective factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 111-120. http://dx.doi.org/10 .1007/s10896-008-9215-2
Donovan, K., & Regehr, C. (2010). Elder abuse: Clinical, ethical, and legal considerations in social work practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 38(2), 174-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10615-010-0269-2
Feeney, J., Kamiya, Y., Kenny, R. A., & Robertson, I. H. (2013). Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(6), 735-743. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.21861
Gobin, R. L. (2012). Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(2), 152-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.642752
Haynie, D. L., Petts, R. J., Maimon, D., & Piquero, A. R. (2009). Exposure to violence in adolescence and precocious role exits. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 269-286. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007 /s10964-008-9343-2
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Family Violence
"when someone uses abusive behavior to control and/or harm a member of their family, or someone with whom they have an intimate relationship."

Common types:
intimate partner violence
child abuse and neglect
elder abuse
Causes of Violence
Birth complications
Child abuse
Lead exposure
Maternal depression
Poverty, poor education, and family instability.
Prenatal and postnatal nutrition
Tobacco use during pregnancy
Traumatic brain injury
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