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Untitled Prezi

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by

Sam Haimowitz

on 19 April 2013

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Transcript of Untitled Prezi

By: Alexis and Sam La Niña El Niño -Climate pattern that lowers the sea surface temperature across the Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3-5 degrees Celsius
-Results from interaction between the surface of the ocean and the atmosphere in the tropical Pacific. Changes in the ocean impact the atmosphere and climate patterns around the globe. In turn, changes the atmosphere impact the ocean temperatures and currents. They system oscillates between conditions on an average of 3-4 years. Effects on the Ocean Effects on Weather -Parts of Australia and Indonesia are typically wetter during La Niña
-During La Niña the southwest in generally drier than normal from late summer till winter, central plains in the fall, and then the southeast experiences dryness during the winter
-S.O.I has neutral values under La Niña
-Wind intensity decreases
-South Eastern Africa and Northern Brazil experience wetter seasons along with Australia and Indonesia Effects on Fisheries -Upwelling increases off the coast of Peru during La Niña
-During La Niña, Peru experiences cooler temperatures as well as an increase in fishing profits
-Strengthens and colds the upwelling in Peru
-The lower sea surface temperatures induced by a La Niña event can reduce the intensity of this layering, or stratification, in the upper water column which causes an increase in primary production levels
-Since fishing production sky rockets, economic output in the regions booms as a result -The increase in rain in certain areas leads to potential flooding in the areas while droughts occur in the areas that have a decrease in rain
-The surface temperature of oceans drops during La Niña
-Deep, nutrient-rich waters is upwelled, moves vertically, into the eutrophic zone which causes an increase in primary producers
-Strong currents bring up nutrients from deep water which provides food for marine organisms
-Eastern Pacific experiences decline in thermocline while the Western Pacific experiences an increase -Most of the time follows La Niña
-During El Niño the trade winds relax in the central and western Pacific leading to a depression of thermocline in the eastern Pacific and an increase in elevation of the thermocline in the west
-El Niño is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, as opposed to La Niña, which characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. El Niño is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe Effects on the Ocean Effects on Weather Effects on Fisheries -Sea levels rise in the northern hemisphere as an increase of rainfall leads to a seasonal flooding while bringing droughts in many other parts of the world from Southern India to Australia to Central America
-A change in wind patterns cause the surface water temperature change as and the winds in the western Pacific, usually weak, are blowing strongly towards the east, pushing the warm water eastward
-Thermocline decreases in Western Pacific and increases in Eastern Pacific
-Currents carry warmer water from the Western Pacific to Eastern Pacific
-Because of the decrease of thermocline in the eastern pacific it allows for an increase in stratification whereas the west's increase in thermocline stultifies any potential stratification in the area -The S.O.I has negative values during El Niño
-Brings cooler and wetter weather to the southern United States
-Opposite from La Niña, northern Brazil, Indonesia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are relatively dry, whereas Europe and the South American Pacific coast experience cooler, wetter weather
-Strong easterly winds push the water east (obviously) resulting in a change in climate
-Many of the Pacific Islands already receive a fair amount of annual rainfall but during El Niño those countries just east of the Asian continent will receive substantially less rainfall as a result of the shift in climate -Bringing warm water to the Pacific coast of Peru, El Niño causes the upwelling of water that contains few nutrients which ultimately decimates the fish populations of the region
-Because the water has few nutrients, primary producers struggle to survive which leads to the struggle for secondary and tertiary consumers
-Since the thermocline levels are low, stratification increases which layers levels of sediment and causes the lives of primary producers to decrease in quality
-The stratification in the area will increase with less thermocline while it decreases in area with more thermocline
-And since the fish populations are dying due to water that lacks nutrients, the economic activity ultimately suffers as a result
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