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fernando carvajal

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of Education

Education: 1950s & Today
Court cases in the 50s
Court cases Today
2013: In Fisher v. University of Texas, a challenge to the university’s use of race in undergraduate admissions, the Court reinforced the application of strict scrutiny in reviewing such practices, requiring a university to ensure such programs are “narrowly tailored.”

-Abigail N. Fisher, a Caucasian female, applied for undergraduate admission to the University of Texas in 2008. Fisher was not in the top ten percent of her class, so she competed for admission with other non-top ten percent in-state applicants. The University of Texas denied Fisher's application. Fisher filed suit against the university and other related defendants, claiming that the University of Texas' use of race as a consideration in admission decisions was in violation of the equal protection cause of the Fourteenth Amendment and a violation of42 U.S.C. Section 1983. The university argued that its use of race was a narrowly tailored means of pursuing greater diversity. The district court decided in favor of the University of Texas, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the district court's decision. Fisher appealed the appellate court's decision
Discipline in the 1950s
1955: In Brown v. Board II, the Supreme Court held that school systems must abolish their racially dual systems, but could do so "with all deliberate speed."
1954: In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court held that equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment extends beyond a “two-class theory” of differences between black and white individuals, but includes protections for any individual who is a member of a group singled out for discriminatory treatment, regardless of national origin or descent.

-Students were to greet their teachers with a chorus of “good morning sir/madam.”
- Students knew that when teachers rang the bell on their desk, that meant students had to be at full attention.
- If boys got in trouble at school they got a caning, and girls got slapped with a ruler on their hands.
-Children were not allowed to speak back, and if they got any misdemeanors they had to serve a detention.
-Children were expected to be quiet and well behaved.

Nowadays teachers are intimidated by their students, so in fear they ignore and fail to report any problems.
The amount of procedures the schools/teachers have to go through make it very difficult to stop and control school discipline.
Schools have so much trouble with discipline because nowadays schools do not strictly enforce rules.
Schools believe in students self esteem which leads to teachers not wanting to hurt students, which leads to them not wanting to discipline students.

Discipline Today
Uniforms in the 1950's

Girl’s school clothes were far more conservative in the 1950’s. They wore dresses that were shirtwaist style with coordinated belts. They dressed in jumpers, that were available in many different colors allowing them be more versatile with different blouses and sweaters. They wore pencil-slim skirts. The length of the skirts and jumpers went from mid-knee to mid-calf. In addition, the girls wore scoop neck blouses that were modestly cut. Also, they wore saddle shoes and white bucks. Outfit color coordinated socks were a must with these shoes.
Boy’s school clothes consisted of jeans {primary school} and slacks {secondary school}. The younger boys wore suits with blazer shorts, until they were about 11 years old. From then on, they’d wear long pants, which often symbolized manhood, and they wanted them as soon as possible. Teen boys also wore penny loafers, khakis, and button down shirts.

Scoop Neck Blouses
Saddle Shoes
Uniforms in the 1950's
Penny Loafers
Uniform Now : 2015
Plaid or Khakis, polos or button downs. Polo shirts, pants (usually khaki, black, or navy blue) and any type of sneakers are usually worn in public schools. Skirts are occasionally an option for girls.
Button down dress shirt with a tie, trousers, and dress shoes are usually worn in private schools.
A lot of high schools today do not have uniforms.

In Brown v. Board of Education, Chief Justice Earl Warren, reading his first major opinion from the bench, said:
"We conclude, unanimously, that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
--Brown v. Board of Education in which segregated schools, classrooms, and programs based on race were declared illegal and unconstitutional. The Supreme Court avowed the ending of separate and unequal education in America;
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents--Focuses on experiences of African Americans students, George W. McLaurin and Clara Williams who became social pariahs at predominantly white universities in the United States. Harassment experienced by McLaurin at the University of Oklahoma in Norman; Supreme Court's ruling on the case, McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education; Efforts of the New Mexico State University to make amends for the treatment Williams received while on campus
Technology in the 50s
1950-Headphones : Students could learn lessons through repeated drills and repetition.

1950- Slide Rule :The most common used calculation tool in science and engineering

1951- Videotapes: It does more likely what a disc does, it just holds videos in tapes, which help students to learn in a more efficient way.

1957 - Reading accelerator : Designed to help students read more efficiently

1957 - Skinner teaching machine : Allowed a student to proceed at his or her own pace through a regimented program of instruction.

1958 - Educational Television: More than 50 channels were createdall across the country including educational programming

1959 - Photocopier: Used to make copies of documents, and is still in use today with the exemption of some improvements

Reading Accelerator
Skinner Teaching Machine
1950's Photocopier
Additional Information
1950's TV
-Average days of school in the 1950s were 155 days. Today the average is 188 days
-Teachers salary in the 1950s were up to $4,000, as of today it's around $39,000
-In the 1950s parents would spend at most $215 dollars while todays parents spend around $10,000 dollars.
-There wasn't a lot of homework that was handed out to students back then, they had more free time, on the other hand it was harder for them to do research on projects.
Technology Today
Tehnology now
When we think about it, the way students study now is very different from the way they did back in the past years. Heavy rustic elements that were not multi-use, huge books which that had to be read throughout to find an answer and no use of calculators but instead, your own brain.
Now we have things like computers, I-Pads, tablets, smart phones , internet , etc… , which gives us an answer in less of a minute, plus we can buy from a pen to a house with just one click or with one touch on where it says “Make a Payment”. However it is very important to highlight that even though everything is easier, this fast and efficient technology can make students lame and lazy if they don’t use it in the correct way.

Nowadays, scientific research is way more advance. We have new theories and tools to help us learn.
Kids all over the place have more opportunity to attend schools. Free public schools exist and a lot more schools have been built.
Kids with disabilities are given more attention now.
Schools are more diverse.
Parents were less involved in their children's education.
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