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History of Special Education

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Laura Wasielewski

on 22 July 2013

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Transcript of History of Special Education

Empowerment
Four Phases of Services
History of Special Education
Relative Isolation
Integration
Inclusion
Denied Access or Relative Isolation
Mainstreaming
UDL
Self-determination
Highest level of independence
1972 –

Wolf Wolfensberger brings the normalization movement to the U. S.
1876 - Seguin starts Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiots and Feebleminded Persons (AAMR)

1897-1918 NEA disabilities division

1905 - residential institutions in every state

1846 - Edouard Seguin writes the first systematic analysis of the needs of children with disabilities

1848 - Massachusetts School for the Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Children

1799 –

Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron, brought to Dr. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard

Field of Special Education Timeline

1817 – Gallaudet

1825 - House of Refuge

1832 - New England Asylum for the Blind

1922 - CEC
1935 - ASHA
1949 - UCP
1950 - ARC
1961 - National Society for Autistic Children
1963 - National Association for Children with Learning Disabilities

Associations established
2004 –

H.R. 1350, The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 2004), reauthorizes and modifies IDEA .

Changes, which take effect on July 1, 2005, include modifications in the IEP process and  procedural safeguards, increased authority for school personnel in special education placement decisions, and alignment of IDEA with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

2001 –

The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is signed into law by President George W. Bush.

The law, which reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965, holds schools accountable for student achievement levels and provides penalties for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward meeting the goals of NCLB.

1990 –

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

prevents discrimination in employment, transportation, telecommunications and public accommodations.

1990 –
Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), renames and amends Public Law 94-142.
In addition to changing terminology from handicap to disability, it mandates transition services and adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list (reauthorized in 1997 mediation and discipline).
1983 –

The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk,

calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training.
1975 –

The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) becomes federal law.

It requires that a free, appropriate public education (FAPE), suited to the student's individual needs, and offered in the least restrictive setting be provided for all "handicapped" children. States are given until 1978 (later extended to 1981) to fully implement the law (reauthorized in 1986).

1973 -

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation

Act of 1973 guarantees basic civil rights to people with disabilities and sets the stage for IDEA, but it does not provide education funding
1972 –

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972  becomes law.

Though many people associate this law only with girl's and women's participation in sports, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in all aspects of education.
1972 –

The case of Mills v. the Board of Education of Washington, D.C.

extends the PARC v. Pennsylvania ruling to other students with disabilities and requires the provision of "adequate alternative educational services suited to the child's needs, which may include special education.
1972 –

In the case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania,

the federal court rules that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education.
1965 –

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

is passed on April 9. Part of Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it provides federal funds to help low-income students, which results in the initiation of educational programs such as Title I, Head Start, and bilingual education.
Legal
Timeline
Differentiated Instruction
RTI
IEP'S
504 Plans
Career and College Ready
Representation - multiple ways of presenting content

Expression – alternative means of expressing what has been learned

Engagement – an instructional plan that incorporates students’ choices in projects and assignments
3 components to UDL
A primary goal of UDL is to meet the needs of all students, not just those with disabilities.

“UD is an enduring design approach that originates from the belief that the broad range of human ability is ordinary, not special.”
Universal Design for Learning
“UD is an enduring design approach that originates from the belief that the broad range of human ability is ordinary, not special.”

UD benefits everyone by accommodating limitations. Accessible features have been integrated into the overall design.
Universal Design
Universal Design is an approach to the design of all products and environments to be as usable as possible by as many people regardless of age, ability or situation = social inclusion.
Universal Design

Is based on “guiding principles used by architects who design buildings, products, and environments for independent use by people with a wide range of unique physical and cognitive needs.”
Universal Design for Learning
Universal Design for Learning
What is UDL?
1. Equitable Use

2. Flexibility in Use

3. Simple and Intuitive Use

4. Perceptible Information
Principles of UD
Courey, S.J., Tappe, P., Siker, J., LePage, P. (2012). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education and Special Education 36(1) 7-27
Universal Design Education Online Website; Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University; IDEA Center, University at Buffalo; Global Universal Design Educator’s Network; 2002-2004
The Seven Principles that describe characteristics that make designs universally usable are:
5. Tolerance for Error

6. Low Physical Effort

7. Size and Space for Approach and Use
Universal Design Education Online Website; Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University; IDEA Center, University at Buffalo; Global Universal Design Educator’s Network; 2002-2004
Courey, S.J., Tappe, P., Siker, J., LePage, P. (2012). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education and Special Education 36(1) 7-27
Full transcript