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4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
Transcript of 4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
I. Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their rule.
The Big Ideas
I. Methods to legitimize consolidate power
b. Religious ideas
c. Differential treatment of ethnic and religious groups
d. Bureaucratic elites/Military professionals
e. Tribute collection & tax farming
II. Imperial expansion that established large empires
a. Land empires
b. Maritime empires
III. Challenges to state consolidation and expansion
a. Competition over trade routes
b. Local resistance
Historical Period 4: c. 1450 to c. 1750
BY: CATHY NGUYEN
& LEON SIM
AP World History
Rulers used the arts to display political power.
Rulers continued to use religious ideas to legitimize their rule.
Differential Treatment of Ethnic & Religious Groups
States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state.
Ottoman Treatment of the non-Muslim subjects
Bureaucratic Elites/Military Professionals
Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources.
Chinese Examination System
Tribute Collection & Tax Farming
Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial expansion.
-Ottoman tax farming beginning around the 17th century
Tax farmers (people who were paid to collect taxes
Taxed non-Muslims to encourage them into converting to Islam
- Aztec tributes
Paid with goods and luxury items usually 2-4 times a year
ex. cloth, firewood, food, feathers, etc.
II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.
Land empires expanded dramatically in size.
European states established new maritime empires in the Americas.
- Portuguese, Brazil, Spanish, Dutch, French, and British
III. Competition over trade routes, state rivalries, and local resistance all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
Competition Over Trade Routes
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- Dynasty founded in 1526 by Babur, a Turkish chieftan
- By Akbar's death in 1605, the empire covered vast territory from Afghanistan to the Deccan Plateau
- Mughal continued to expand but internal struggles and outside invasions caused the empire to fall in the late 18th century
Land Empires cont.
- Started out as a collection of cities that gradually developed into an extensive empire
- Rurik, leader of the Varangians took over the city of Novgorod in 862 CE
His successor Oleg further extended the city's power southwards
- Gained control of Kiev in 882 CE
Became the center of trade and began to flourish for the next 300 years
- Captured Beijing in 1644
- Created the Qing dynasty
Adopted the Chinese language and system of government
- By 1690 the Manchu ruled all of central and coastal China
These countries including Laos, Burma, and Nepal were used as tributaries
- Founded in the late 12th century by Ottoman Turks
- Captured Constantinople in 1453
Entered the Period of Great Expansion when its territory included over 10 European and Middle Eastern states
- Most of the land is located in present day Turkey
Taj Mahal - Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India
Originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal.
Symbolizes Indian civilization
One of the arts as displays of political power is monumental architecture.
Suleymaniye - Largest mosque with domed structures in the world
One of the great engineering Ottoman achievements of Islamic civilization.
Built during the reign of Suleyman I
Chinese emperors use public performances of Confucian rituals as religious ideas to legitimize their rule.
- The emperors were believed by the public to be the only connection to the heavens
Ruling emperors would pray to the heavens once a year for peace and good harvest on the behalf of the people
The Ottomans showed great tolerance and acceptance of non-Muslim subjects in their empire.
The Muslim, Christian, and Jewish merchants were important groups.
Jews and Christians were known as dhimmis, or "people of the Book", in Islamic territories.
Seen as minority groups
Under the protection of the Ottoman rulers.
Based on existing Muslim laws regarding the status of non-Muslims.
They are protected, given religious freedoms, and are free from persecution.
Under the millet system, each religious group was organized into a millet.
The leaders of the millets were allowed to enforce their own religion’s rules on their people.
- Emperor Hongwu used the scholar-gentry system to revive Chinese civilization.
- The examinations played a great role in determining entry into the Chinese bureaucracy.
- Examination system was routinized and made more complex.
Exams took several days to complete and were held in two out of three years.
Those who passed were eligible to take more exams, given every three years.
Completed for degrees and then for positions in the bureaucracy.
Scholars well versed in the Confucian classics were again appointed to the very highest positions in the imperial government.
Peasant uprisings provided significant challenges to state consolidation during the Ottoman empire.
Poorly regulated by the central government, many local officials squeezed the peasants and the laborers who worked their lands for additional taxes and services.
Oppressed peasants and laborers fled the land or rebelled.
Peasant uprisings and flight resulted in the abandonment of cultivated lands.
Also added to the Ottomans' decline.
An ongoing conflict between the Ottoman empire and its European rivals such as the Austrian and Spanish empires.
The pressure from its rivals caused it to be difficult for the Ottoman empire to grow and the Ottomans eventually began to retreat from Europe.
The Ottoman empire was forced to decrease in size because of the rivalry but still ruled parts of the Middle East.