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The Age of Exploration

Chapters 14 + 15
by

Dan Priest

on 27 May 2016

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Transcript of The Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration
The Search for Spices
Magellan had successfully found a way to reach the Pacific Ocean by heading west from Europe:
His crew wanted to return to Spain going back the way they came
Magellan wanted to go back to Spain by sailing around the whole world
He thought it would only take three weeks to cross the Pacific:
It took around four months
When his ship reached the Philippines in Asia, Magellan was killed by natives
Magellan’s Long Journey
A whole New World was discovered, but Spain still never found a good route to Asia:
Many nations in Europe tried to find the “northwest passage” through the Americas to reach Asia, but none were very successful
Ferdinand Magellan
was the first to try sailing around the tip of South America:
Through brutal storms, rushing tides, and unpredictable winds, he finally found his way
Now known as the Straight of Magellan
You Can’t Always Get What You Want
An Italian sea captain who sailed to the New World wrote a journal of his voyages:
Amerigo Vespucci
A German
cartographer
(mapmaker) used Amerigo’s journal to help fill in the details of the New World map:
The cartographer called the region America
Naming the New World
Eventually the Spanish realized that Columbus had found new continents, instead of Asia:
They didn’t want anyone else to have the right to explore the New World!
(Especially the Portuguese, obvs.)
They went to Pope Alexander VI for support
Just so happened he was a Spanish Pope!
The Pope set a
Line of Demarcation
in the Atlantic Ocean:
Anything to the west of that line, Spain had the right to trade and explore
Anything to the east, Portugal was able to explore
Dividing the Globe in Half
Columbus sails west with three ships:
They’d planned on only a few weeks until they reached land
It took them over three months to reach land
Columbus explored the many islands he thought were in Southeast Asia:
He was actually in the Caribbean Sea
He returned to Spain in 1493 a hero, and made three separate voyages back to the islands:
Later called the West Indies
August 3, 1492
Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled all Muslims and Jews from the country:
They hoped to strengthen their country by having a unified religion – Catholicism
Because of this, many of the people that left or were expelled were the educated population
This resulted in a weaker Spain
Spain needed to bring wealth into the country:
They thought Christopher Columbus could make Spain stronger
Spain and Their Troubles
Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, had the brilliant idea of sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean to reach Asia:
Most people knew now that the Earth was round, not flat
Thanks, Greek thinkers!
Portugal would not fund his trip, so he went to Spain for a fleet and sailors:
Ferdinand and Isabella were King and Queen of Spain at the time
Columbus Sails West
1497 – Vasco da Gama sails around the Cape of Good Hope and arrives in India:
This was the furthest Portugal had traveled past Africa
When they returned home, the journey was so far that they lost half their ships, and many sailors died of hunger and thirst
The journey was well worth it:
The spices da Gama took from India were worth a fortune
Vasco da Gama
Prince Henry’s ultimate goal was to find an easier path to Asia:
His plan was to sail underneath and around Africa
The Portuguese drew new maps, redesigned ships, and trained new captains for longer journeys than what they’d been used to

Henry died in 1460, but the Portuguese continued their quest to travel around Africa.
Portugal Begins to Explore
The driving force behind Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry:
The Portuguese had discovered islands to the west
They had expanded into North Africa, taking lands from the Muslims there
Prince Henry was obsessed with Africa
There were great riches in West Africa (gold)
He also focused on converting West Africans to Christianity (they were mostly Muslim or African tribal)
Portugal Begins to Explore
Since the end of the Crusades in Europe and the Middle East, Europeans became obsessed with trading with Asia for spices.

Before Europeans began exploring, it was mainly the Arabs that brought Asian goods into Europe.

Europeans knew it would be cheaper to access Asia directly.
Motivations for Exploring
His crew completed the journey
After three years sailing, they returned with only one ship and 18 sailors
They were the first in the world to
circumnavigate
the Earth:
Sail around the world

“I believe of a certainty that no one will ever again make such a voyage.”
Magellan’s Long Journey
Vasco da Gama built a new fleet and traveled back to India.

He assigned Portuguese merchants to different ports all throughout India:
These merchants bought Indian spices when they were cheap and set up shops for new Portuguese fleets
When the spices were brought back to Portugal, they were sold for a high price
Portugal became a vast trading empire
Portugal as a World Power
Dias rounded the African tip:
The seas underneath Africa were very turbulent
The tip became known as Cape of Good Hope
It opened the way for a route to Asia

Dias rounded the Cape, but did not reach Asia himself.
Bartholomeu Dias
As Europe’s population grew, so did the demand for trade goods:
Most demanded items were
spices
: clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, pepper
Used to preserve food, add flavor & make medicine/perfume
Chief source of spices: Moluccas
A chain of islands in present-day Indonesia
The “Spice Islands”
Spice World
Astrolabe
- Device used to measure the angles of the sun and stars above the horizon; determined latitude
Improved Technologies
Caravel
- Ship that combined the square sails of Europeans with triangular sails of Arabs; easier to sail across or into wind
Conquest in the Americas
In 1521, in a brutal struggle, Cortés and his Indian allies captured and demolished Tenochtitlán.

As in the Caribbean, disease had aided their cause. Smallpox had spread among the Aztecs from the 1519 encounter, decimating the population.
Cortés Conquers Mexico
For the first time, much of the world was now connected by sea routes, on which traveled ships carrying goods, people, and ideas.
Guns, Germs, and Steel
In the 1500s and early 1600s, treasure fleets sailed each year to Spain or the Spanish Philippines loaded with gold and silver:
With this wealth, Spain became Europe’s greatest power

Some Native Americans believed that the disasters they suffered marked the world’s end:
As tens of thousands of Indians died, many Native Americans converted to Christianity in the hopes that their suffering would end

Throughout the Americas, Indians resisted European influences by preserving aspects of their own culture:
Language, religious traditions, and clothing
Guns, Germs, and Steel
Within a few decades, a few hundred European soldiers—helped by superior weapons, horses, and especially disease—had conquered millions of Native Americans.

The Spanish had seized huge quantities of valuable goods.

They used Native American labor to establish silver mines in Peru and Mexico to finance their new empire
Guns, Germs, and Steel
Another Spaniard,
Francisco Pizarro
, was interested in Peru’s Inca empire, which was reputed to have even more riches than the Aztecs.

Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, just after the Incan ruler
Atahualpa
had won the throne from his brother in a bloody civil war:
Atahualpa refused to become a Spanish vassal or convert to Christianity
In response, Pizarro, aided by Indian allies, captured him and slaughtered thousands of Inca
The Spanish demanded a huge ransom for the ruler
The Inca paid it, but the Spanish killed Atahualpa anyway
Pizarro Procures Peru
Cortés became extremely interested in the gold and silver ornaments that Moctezuma began sending him, and led his forces inland toward the capital.

Moctezuma welcomed Cortés, but relations between the Aztecs and Spaniards soon grew strained:
The Spanish scorned the Aztecs’ religion and sought to convert them to Christianity
They decided to imprison Moctezuma so they could gain control of the Aztecs and their riches
Cortés Conquers Mexico
Tenochtitlán
He began an inland trek toward Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztec empire (and modern day Mexico City).

A young Indian woman named
Malinche
served as his translator and adviser. She also bore Cortés a son. This was all done while she was technically a slave.

Cortés arranged alliances with the conquered peoples who hated their Aztec overlords.
Cortés Conquers Mexico
Among the earliest conquistadors was
Hernán Cortés
.

Cortés, a landowner in Cuba, believed that he could succeed where none had before.

In 1519, he landed on the coast of Mexico with about 600 men, 16 horses, and a few cannons
Cortés Conquers Mexico
Europeans unknowingly carried diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza to which Native Americans had no
immunity
, or resistance.

The Native American population of the Caribbean islands declined by as much as 90 percent in the 1500s.
The Deadliest Weapon
Columbus’ encounter was repeated by a wave of Spanish
conquistadors
, or conquerors, who soon arrived in the Americas.

Although Spanish conquistadors only numbered in the hundreds as compared to millions of Native Americans, they had many advantages:
Guns and cannons > arrows and spears
Metal armor
Horses
Religion
Hail to the Conquering Heroes
Despite the friendly reception, relations soon soured
The Taínos offended the Spanish when out of ignorance they failed to pay proper respect to Christian symbols
Columbus’ actions showed that he felt himself superior to the Taínos and could therefore decide their fate
He claimed their land for Spain, and then took several Taínos as prisoners to take back to the Spanish king
Columbus later made each Taíno give him gold
Guess what happened if they refused?
Killing the Taínos
When Columbus first arrived in the West Indies, he encountered the Taíno people.

The Taínos lived in villages and grew corn, yams, and cotton, which they wove into cloth. The Spanish learned of pineapples, canoes, smoking tobacco, manatees, and hammocks from them.

They were friendly and open toward the Spanish.
Meeting the Taínos
Aztec emperor
Moctezuma
caught wind of the Spaniards
He wondered if the leader of the pale-skinned, bearded strangers might be
Quetzalcoatl
“Feathered serpent”
An Aztec god-king who had long ago vowed to return from the east
Today, this is viewed as patently ridiculous, but not necessarily unbelievable
Cortés Conquers Mexico
Columbus’ first meeting with Native Americans began a cycle of encounter, conquest, and death that would be repeated throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Christopher Columbus Continued
“There was then no sickness;
They had then no aching bones;
They had then no high fever;
They had then no smallpox;
They had then no burning chest…
At that time the course of humanity was orderly.
The foreigners made it otherwise when they arrived here.”
The Deadliest Weapon
In the confusion that followed—with various groups of Spanish, Aztecs, and Native Americans all fighting for control—the Aztecs drove the Spanish from the city. More than half of the Spanish were killed in the fighting, as was Moctezuma.
Cortés retreated to plan an assault
Toppling Tenochtitlán
The Atlantic Slave Trade
First Leg of the Trip:
European ships leave Europe in route for Africa to trade guns, cloth and cash for slaves

Second Leg of the Trip:

(Middle Passage)
Africans are transported across the Atlantic to the Americas and traded for sugar, molasses and other plantation goods

The Last and Final Leg:
Goods obtained in Americas are taken back to Europe for profits
Triangular Trade
The Slave Trade in Numbers
Horrors of the Middle Passage
Worldwide Trade
International trading across the Atlantic Ocean
Linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Triangular Trade

Wealth to traders who used labor to help colonial economies grow.

African societies were torn apart:
1500s: An estimated 2,000 Africans were taken to the Americas each year
1780s: The peak of slave trade; about 80,000 were taken a year
By mid-1800s, when slave trade stopped, an estimated 11 million Africans had been taken from Africa, while another 2 million died on the trip over
Impact of the Slave Trade
Africans on the trip were chained in holding pens on voyages that lasted between 3 weeks and 3 months.

Trips were dangerous: storms, raids by pirates, mutinies on board.

Disease ran rampant from exposure to Europeans and bad conditions on the ships:
Ships were known as “floating coffins”

Africans committed suicide in belief that upon their death, they would return home to Africa
Horrors of the Middle Passage

Africans were stolen from their villages against their will.

Men, women and children were chained together, made to walk long distances and forced to carry heavy loads onto ships.
Horrors of the Middle Passage
Triangular Trade
Floating Coffins
18th Century
DESTINATIONS
The English were always looking for the
Northwest Passage
A route through North America that would lead to the Pacific, and ultimately to Asia
They never found one:
They began concentrating on setting up colonies in North America
Jamestown, Virginia
First colony in 1607
The English Colonies
Spain and Portugal were the largest empires in Europe:
England and France were jealous of their riches in the New World
The French began sailing across the Atlantic in the early 1500s:
They’d go strictly to catch huge amounts of fish off the coast of New France – later called Canada
Over time, the French moved more inland:
Their major business was trading fur with the natives
The first French settlement was
Quebec
Colonizing North America
Portugal claimed most of East Brazil in South America:
This area of land was outside Spanish rule from the Line of Demarcation
Many natives of Brazil were wiped out due to disease:
The Portuguese used the Natives and Africans as slaves on their plantations
Gold and silver were rare in Brazil
The main Portuguese export was brazilwood
The Portuguese Colonies
Just as important as gaining new territory was spreading Christianity:
Spain was heavily Catholic
Spanish Catholics were loyal to the Spanish king
The Catholic Church worked with the government to convert Native Americans to Christianity

Native Americans were also forced to work for the Spanish in some areas:
Conquistadors "had the right" to demand labor from natives
If natives resisted, they were killed
Population of natives fell because of hunger, disease and cruel treatment
The Spanish Empire
Something Scary
Many other English colonies were set up over the next hundred years:
They were mainly established for one of two reasons:
Commercial ventures: to make money for England
Religious havens: to escape the dominance of the European Church
The English had a difficult time building their societies:
They quickly abandoned their hopes of finding gold and silver like the Spanish did
They eventually found their wealth in using the natural resources around them
Fishing, timber, shipbuilding
The English Colonies
1620 – England settles in Plymouth, MA
Pilgrims – English Protestants – looking for religious freedom from the Church of England
They were the first to establish self-government
They all signed the
Mayflower Compact
An agreement that set up guidelines for governing their colony
Both of these English colonies survived because of the help from the natives:
They were taught how to farm certain crops with more effective methods
The English Colonies
Eventually the French expanded from Canada down to Louisiana:
"Sun" King Louis XIV of France sought to gather more taxes from the New World to help boost the French economy

The land they occupied was nothing compared to the English colonies along the Atlantic Coast.
Colonizing North America
In Spanish America, a new social structure was put in place:
Peninsulares
People born in Spain
Creoles
American-born Spanish settlers
Mestizos
Group of Native American and European mix
Mulattoes
Group of African and European decent
New Social Structure
A priest named
Bartolomé de las Casas
pleaded with the King of Spain to end the abuse against the Natives. The king passed a law ending the cruel treatment in the colonies.
But Spain was far away, and the law was never fully enforced.
Las Casas urged colonists to import workers from Africa:
They were more immune to tropical diseases
He later regretted this because it furthered the brutal African slave trade
The Spanish began enslaving Africans in the 1530s
The Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire
Colonizing the Americas
The Spanish set up a huge empire that eventually stretched from California to South America:
The land was eventually divided into four provinces

Since the Spanish king ruled from Europe, he appointed
viceroys
to rule in his place in the Americas.
Something Hairy
We are here at this moment because of a series of rather unfortunate events in time.

Eating people in Jamestown meant that the British colonies could survive over the harsh winter, making it easier to prepare for the next.

Compare this to slavery, wars, religious persecution, and all other sorts of bad stuff and ask yourself the most important question in history:
In the End...
What if?
"There I found very many islands, filled with innumerable people, and I have taken possession of them all for their Highnesses, done by proclamation and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was offered to me."
"
"
Wherefore, as best we can, we ask and require you [to] take the time that shall be necessary to understand and deliberate upon it, and that you acknowledge the Church as the ruler and superior of the whole world.

But if you do not do this
, and maliciously make delay in it, I certify to you that, with the help of God, we shall powerfully enter into your country, and shall make war against you in all ways and manners that we can, and shall subject you to [obey] the Church and their highnesses; we shall take you, and your wives, and your children, and shall make slaves of them, and as such shall sell and dispose of them as their highnesses may command.
From
El Requierimento
Full transcript