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BU 409 2016 Instructional Resource


Glen Drummond

on 27 October 2018

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Transcript of BU 409 2016 Instructional Resource

Creativity For Marketing Managers
Creativity as Process
Thinking Hats
Business Applications

"Creative People"

Abduction is the process of forming an explanatory hypothesis. It is the only logical operation which introduces any new idea; for induction does nothing but determine a value, and deduction merely evolves the necessary consequences of a pure hypothesis.
Deduction proves that something must be; Induction shows that something actually is operative; Abduction merely suggests that something may be.
[Abduction's] only justification is that from its suggestion deduction can draw a prediction which can be tested by induction, and that, if we are ever to learn anything or to understand phenomena at all, it must be by abduction that this is to be brought about.
No reason whatsoever can be given for it, as far as I can discover; and it needs no reason, since it merely offers suggestions.

–C.S. Peirce. Collected Papers. V.171
Romantic hero
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Romantic hero is a literary archetype referring to a character that rejects established norms and conventions, has been rejected by society, and has the self as the center of his or her own existence.[1] The Romantic hero is often the protagonist in the literary work and there is a primary focus on the character's thoughts rather than his or her actions. Literary critic Northrop Frye noted that the Romantic hero is often "placed outside the structure of civilization and therefore represents the force of physical nature, amoral or ruthless, yet with a sense of power, and often leadership, that society has impoverished itself by rejecting".[1] Other characteristics of the romantic hero include introspection, the triumph of the individual over the "restraints of theological and social conventions",[1] wanderlust, melancholy, misanthropy, alienation, and isolation.[2]
Creativity in Advertising
Creativity in Product Design


"Don't throw chairs out of windows
Creativity in Business Models & Strategy
Peter Drucker once said, "Every organization ... has a theory of the business ... Some theories of the business are so powerful that they last for a long time. But ... they don't last forever, and, indeed, today they rarely last for very long at all. Eventually every theory of the business becomes obsolete and then invalid."' The average life span of those theories grows shorter every day. Building a great business and operating it well no longer guarantees you'll be around in 100 years, or even 20. In 1958, the average length of time a company remained on the S&P 500 was 57 years; by 1983, it had dropped to 30 years; in 2008, it was just 18.2

Mark W. Johnson. Seizing the White Space: Business Model Innovation for Growth and Renewal (Kindle Locations 1487-1491). Kindle Edition.
Amazon at its roots is built to transform. When it finds opportunities to serve new customers, or existing customers in new ways, it conceives and builds new business models to exploit them. Amazon has the unique ability to create and operate at the same time-to invest for the long term by launching and running entirely new types of businesses while simultaneously extracting value from existing businesses. It demonstrates that becoming can become a part of being for any organization willing to invest the time, discipline, and effort. Whatever its future holds, Amazon's journey will likely be marked by a series of transformations, as it continues to pursue its vision unafraid of white space, business model innovation, or renewal.

Mark W. Johnson. Seizing the White Space: Business Model Innovation for Growth and Renewal (Kindle Locations 1511-1515). Kindle Edition.
Is the ad “out of the ordinary”?
Does it depart from stereotypical thinking?
Is it unique?
Does the ad contain ideas that move from one subject to another?
Does it contain different ideas?
Does it shift from one idea to another?
Does the ad contain numerous details?
Does it extend basic ideas and make them more intricate?
Does it contain more details than expected?

Does the ad connect objects that are usually unrelated?
Does it contain unusual connections?
Does it bring unusual items together?

Artistic Value
Is the ad visually or verbally distinctive?
Does it make ideas come to life graphically or verbally?
Is it artistic in its production?

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
"The trick to creativity, if there is a single useful thing to say about it, is to identify your own peculiar talent and then to settle down to work with it for a good long time. Everyone has an aptitude for something. The trick is to recognize it, to honor it, to work with it. This is where creativity starts."

Stephen J Gould

My talent is making connections. That’s why I’m an essayist. It’s also why my technical work is structured the way it is. How do the parts of the snail shell interact? What are the rates of growth? Can you see a pattern? I’m always trying to see a pattern in this forest and I’m tickled that I can do that. … I can sit down on just about any subject and think of about twenty things that relate to it and they’re not hokey connections. They’re real connections that you can forge into essays or scientific papers. When I wrote Ontogeny and Phylogeny I had no trouble reading eight hundred articles and bringing them together into a single thread. That’s how it went together. There’s only one way it goes together, one best taxonomy, and I knew what it was.
“I have devoted 30 years of research to how creative people live and work, to make more understandable the mysterious process by which they come up with new ideas and new things. If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity. They show tendencies of thought and action that in most people are segregated. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an individual, each of them is a multitude."



“It involves fluency, or the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas; flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. These are the dimensions of thinking that most creativity tests measure and that most workshops try to enhance.”

But this playfulness doesn't go very far without its antithesis, a quality of doggedness, endurance, and perseverance.


Great art and great science involve a leap of imagination into a world that is different from the present.


We're usually one or the other, either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show. Creative individuals, on the other hand, seem to exhibit both traits simultaneously.


It is remarkable to meet a famous person who you expect to be arrogant or supercilious, only to encounter self-deprecation and shyness instead.


When tests of masculinity and femininity are given to young people, over and over one finds that creative and talented girls are more dominant and tough than other girls, and creative boys are more sensitive and less aggressive than their male peers.


It is impossible to be creative without having first internalized an area of culture. So it's difficult to see how a person can be creative without being both traditional and conservative and at the same time rebellious and iconoclastic.



“Perhaps the most important quality, the one that is most consistently present in all creative individuals, is the ability to enjoy the process of creation for its own sake.
Abduction, Deduction, Induction
Diverge,Converge, Repeat
The refinement loop What also happens often within this situation is that rather than one simple decision, the final action is a result of a refining sequence of creating alternatives (divergence) and selecting the best course of action (convergence). For example as Fig. 9.5 shows, in a creative situation, typically the problem is first considered, then the idea is refined into a usable solution.

Rawlinson, Graham; Straker, David (2011-05-10). How to Invent (Almost) Anything (Kindle Locations 2048-2051). . Kindle Edition.
Youtube Keywords
John West
1984 apple commercial
Cannes Lions
Youtube Keywords Meet the Pyro
Youtube Keywords
Mihály Csíkszentmihályi: Flow, Creativity & the Evolving Self - Thinking Allowed DVD w/ Mishlove
Basadur Creativity Profile
Force-rank the choices in each horizontal set with 4=best fit, and 1=worst fit with your problem-solving style
Score and Plot
How it works
Typical Profiles
So What?
What Min Says

(Myers Briggs)

How are the following items related?

"right and left brain"
The changes SCAMMPERR stands for are:
S - Substitute - components, materials, people
C - Combine - mix, combine with other assemblies or services, integrate
A - Adapt - alter, change function, use part of another element
M - Magnify - Make it enormous, longer, higher, overstated, added features
M - Modify - increase or reduce in scale, change shape, modify attributes (e.g. colour)
P - Put to another use
E - Eliminate - remove elements, simplify, reduce to core functionality
R - Rearrange - change the order, interchange components, change the speed or other pattern.
R - Reverse - turn inside out or upside down.
Creativity in an Organizational Context
"Divergent Thinking"
Critique of our
Developmental Environment

Was it school that screwed us up?
Or the renaissance church?
Is it the structure of our incentives?
Daniel Pink
Is an anti-creative bias inherent in corporate

A root cause is an initiating cause of a causal chain which leads to an outcome or effect of interest. Commonly, root cause is used to describe the depth in the causal chain where an intervention could reasonably be implemented to change performance and prevent an undesirable outcome.

An Attention to Root Cause
The "Challenger" Sale
So what is the model?
1. Putting salespeople into five buckets.
The Hard Worker
The Challenger
The Relationship Builder
The Lone Wolf
The Reactive Problem Solver

2. Re-Evaluating What Works
3. Adapting a New Selling Process Template
Why Pitches are Often a Struggle
From Services to Offer-Based Positioning
Injecting Validity Back into The Discussion
Creating Value through "Commercial Teaching"
Construct validity – “The right tool for the job.”
If something is said to have construct validity, it means that the appropriate heuristic has been chosen for measuring the phenomenon of interest. If you’ve ever been assessed or had work evaluated, and felt like the measuring technique being applied wasn’t appropriate or that the “measurer” lacked the appropriate expertise or contextual information to make this assessment, you’ve experienced a lack of construct validity.
Face validity – “Working, on the surface.”
If something has face validity, it appears to “make sense” because of what is directly observable. This means that it is always subject to the observer, and even if that observer knows what is going on “beneath the surface” face validity is only to be assessed on what is directly observable. While face validity can be important for buy-in, it must be recognized that high face validity can also often be impractical for the casual observer due to expertise gaps or design complexity.
Content validity –“Working, under the hood.”
Content validity is the “beneath the surface” companion to face validity. You can have both content and face validity, but you can also have one without the other. Content validity is usually judged on two things: whether the appropriate dimension(s) of the problem or design are being assessed, and whether this is being done within an appropriate sample frame. Are you asking the right questions of the right people, for what you want to learn? Are you measuring the right things at the right granularity, for what you want to learn?
External validity – “Can be generalized.”
If something has external validity, then it can be more broadly applied to a specific larger population or to specific other context(s). External validity is essentially associative logic—for example: I like apples and apples are fruit, therefore I like a kind of fruit. As long as the assessment of “I like apples” is acceptable (has construct and content validity) and the sample is representative of the target for generalization (an apple is a type of fruit) there is external validity. Concluding that I like cats from the datum “I like apples” would lack external validity.
Criterion validity – “Same finding, different method.”
Criterion validity is achieved when results from one approach match those from an approach that has already been accepted as “valid.” Remember back in school when you would work through textbook problems and then check your answers against the ones in the back of the book? By comparing the two answers, were checking your problem solving method for criterion validity. A determination of criterion validity compares findings to assess the validity of the method by which they were obtained.

A Partial Taxonomy of Validity
"we're running around like squirrels here...."
"Try as they might, organizations cannot
predict the future. Instead of wasting their
efforts, they should focus more on employing
the vision, judgment and insight of their
human capital."
"Reliability drives the exclusion of variables
and judgment-free measurement, while
validity drives the inclusion of variables
and judgmental measurement."
From Martin
Even though the value of the validity claim is
inherently higher (i.e. predicting the
future) than the value of the reliability
claim (i.e. producing a consistent result),
the reliability claim often wins because
of the greater ability to prove a lower
value claim.
Valid systems typically require use of
subjective or qualitative data in order to
improve their predictive power, while reliable
systems forego the use of such data in
order to maintain reliability.
"Strategically actionable insights"
"Disrupt the status quo"


"Change the competitive dynamic"
Limit Condition
as with everything in marketing - context matters.

Learnings with the "Challenger sale" include this story:
The same template, in two settings worked great the first time, cratered and burned the second. What was the difference:
In the first - the situation was properly warmed up the client was genuinely interested in being taken on a journey. In the second, several constraints worked against success:
- remote versus in person
- time capped to 60 minutes
- speaking with strangers who were not part of earlier conversations.
So - not a magic bullet perhaps, but a great heuristic to draw upon when the right situation presents itself.
The Long Shadow of
A Convergence
Have you ever wondered why you have to watch the same damn TV ad three times in 30 minutes?
BF Skinner

General problems[edit]

Skinner notes the problems of verbal behavior as a dependent variable. Skinner's general position favors rate of response as a dependent measure which, in Verbal Behavior is problematic since all verbal behavior does not have the same unitary quality as a lever press. In the ascertaining of the strength of a response Skinner suggests some criteria for strength(probability):emission, energy-level, speed, repetition, but notes that these are all very limited means for inferring the strength of a response as they do not always vary together as they may come under the control of other factors. Emission is a yes/no measure, however the other three—energy-level, speed, repetition—comprise possible indications of relative strength.[28]
Emission – If a response is emitted it may tend to be interpreted as having some strength. Unusual or difficult conditions would tend to lend evidence to the inference of strength. Under typical conditions it becomes a less compelling basis for inferring strength. This is an inference that is either there or not, and has no gradation of value.
Energy-level – Unlike emission as a basis for inference, energy-level (response magnitude) provides a basis for inferring the response has a strength with a high range of varying strength. Energy level is a basis from which we can infer a high tendency to respond. An energetic and strong "Chomsky!" forms the basis for inferring the strength of the response as opposed to a weak, brief "Chomsky".[28]
Speed – Speed is the speed of the response itself, or the latency from the time in which it could have occurred to the time in which it occurs. A response given quickly when prompted forms the basis for inferring a high strength.[28]
Repetition – "Chomsky! Chomsky! Chomsky!" may be emitted and used as an indication of relative strength compared to the speedy and/or energetic emission of "Chomsky!". In this way repetition can be used as a way to infer strength
Limitations – Skinner notes that these are "easy to overestimate" especially in single instances. Other, extraneous variables, such as noise, special listeners, or those at a distance may induce variation in these relative indicators unrelated to their proper strength.[28]
Overall frequency – The overall frequency of a response in a large body of responses may be used as another indicator of strength. Skinner's analysis of alliteration might be seen as one form of this analysis (Skinner, 1939).[28]
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbal_Behavior_(book)
Shannon 1948
What follows:
Emphasis on frequency - still part of "consistency" theory of brand communications.
The Gross Rating Point (GRP) Still with us today
"Monetizing Eyeballs" (favorite expression of Dot-coms killed in the 2001 crash)

Conclusion: Metaphors are more persistent than you think.
Creativity and Brand
Theory and Practice
The Brand Ladder
The Creative Brief

This content thanks to Edward Boches
Fruit Flies
How Many Triangles?
How Many Squares?

"Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabridge Uinvervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the litteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a ttoal mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is besauae ocne we laren how to raed we bgien to aargnre the lteerts in our mnid to see waht we epxcet to see. The huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but preecsievs the wrod as a wlohe. We do tihs ucnsoniuscoly wuithot tuhoght."

Experiential gestalts.. are ways of organizing experiences into structured wholes.

Lakoff, George; Johnson, Mark (2008-12-19). Metaphors We Live By (p. 81). University of Chicago Press. Kindle Edition.
"we experience the whole as more basic than the parts"
Raymond Williams: "The Magic System"
All Wars Are Story Wars

Sachs, Jonah (2012-06-19). Winning the Story Wars: Why Those Who Tell (and Live) the Best Stories Will Rule the Future (p. 29). Harvard Business Review Press. Kindle Edition.
Today’s best marketers are creating cause and brand loyalty by telling stories that deliver a pattern of meaning for a society in need of just that. They build communities of purpose and give people an empowering sense of us. All societies have relied on core myths to guide them, and too many of ours have been stretched to the point of breaking. Our hunger for these stories explains many of the greatest marketing successes of our time and points to the enormous responsibility marketers carry as creators of modern myths. Why? Because the wars fought over stories have always been the most critical fights in shaping a society’s future.

Sachs, Jonah (2012-06-19). Winning the Story Wars: Why Those Who Tell (and Live) the Best Stories Will Rule the Future (p. 29). Harvard Business Review Press. Kindle Edition.
Marketing Malpractice

Notable Blog Quotes
Since the emergence of the positivist research paradigm, there has been an obsessive faith in the findings it yields. We continue to quantify, unquantifiable variables, using measures that yield data, irrelevant to what they were intended to measure. We try to find the “typical” customer, and what they “typically” need, and create the product accordingly. We ignore the context, individual differences, and the very nature of the changing human behaviour.
Amal Al Salami
I am intrigued by the idea of changing focus from a market-share perspective, to a “job-share perspective” that is, the percentage share a product has for the job it serves. If today’s organizations were to look at how they have a percentage of a “job market” they will undoubtedly find that they compete with completely different products than originally assumed.
Shane Gamble
However, this is not an easy transition, as it is not a simple task to extract these basic goals out of customers. In many cases, customers do not fully understand what they themselves want, so more pressure is placed on market researchers to interpret the notions of consumers and determine just what problem needs to be solved.
Yichen He
“Why do so many marketers try to understand the consumer rather than the job?” How can you understand the job without the consumer?
Tara Herriot
Although consumers wants and needs do have an impact on purchasing behaviour, in my past experiences the products that make you think “wow that is just what I need for (blank)” are the products that encourage the most immediate action.
Emily McLellan
Why is this form of thinking being hidden or contradicted so heavily in academics? At the risk of sounding like an irritated 5 year old who has found out she can’t stay up just 10 minutes longer, “it’s just not fair”. Having personally competed in a case competition that took months of preparation, I wish I had known this sooner.
Laura Smith
Typology of Brand Archetypes
Typology of Deep Metaphor Associations
Topology of Values
WHOLENESS: The need to feel sufficient as an individual and connected to others as part of something larger, to move beyond self-interest

PERFECTION: The need to seek mastery of skill or vocation, often through hard work or struggle

JUSTICE: The need to live by high moral values and to see the world ordered by morality, to overthrow tyranny

RICHNESS: The need to examine life in all of its complexity and diversity, to seek new experience and overcome prejudice

SIMPLICITY: The need to understand the underlying essence of things

BEAUTY: The need to experience and create aesthetic pleasure

TRUTH: The need to experience and express reality without distortion, to tear down falsehood

UNIQUENESS: The need to express personal gifts, creativity, and nonconformity

PLAYFULNESS: They need for joyful experience

Sachs, Jonah (2012-06-19). Winning the Story Wars: Why Those Who Tell (and Live) the Best Stories Will Rule the Future (p. 131). Harvard Business Review Press. Kindle Edition
"Growth Needs" From Abraham Maslow
Frameworks for Attaching Meaning To Brands
Notes on Application

1. A choice of "growth needs" values is a choice to avoid "deficiency" based appeals
(ie appeals that attach brand meaning to safety, sex, physical comfort, status, material acquisition, satisfaction of basic drives )

2. A brand can be associated with more than one of these growth needs, but probably not more than three

Creator Craft something new Williams-Sonoma

Caregiver Care for others AT&T (Ma Bell)

Ruler Exert control American Express

Jester Have a good time Miller Lite

Regular Guy/Gal Be OK just as they are Wendy’s

Lover Find and give love Hallmark

Hero Act courageously Nike

Outlaw Break the rules Harley-Davidson

Magician Affect transformation Calgon

Innocent Retain or renew faith Ivory

Explorer Maintain independence Levi’s

Sage Understand their world Oprah’s Book Club
Mark, Margaret; Pearson, Carol (2001-01-16). The Hero and the Outlaw: Building Extraordinary Brands Through the Power of Archetypes (Page 13). McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition.

1. The concept of archetypes was borrowed by Jung from classic
sources, including Cicero, Pliny, and Augustine. Adolf Bastian called
them “Elementary Ideas.” In Sanskrit, they were called “subjectively
known forms”; and in Australia, they were known as the “Eternal
Ones of the Dream.”
—Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces

Mark, Margaret; Pearson, Carol (2001-01-16). The Hero and the Outlaw: Building Extraordinary Brands Through the Power of Archetypes (Page 4). McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition.
Johna Sachs
Margaret Mark
Gerald Zaltman







In some twelve thousand in-depth interviews for more than a hundred clients in over thirty countries, seven deep metaphors have surfaced with the greatest frequency in every sector— finance, food, transportation, and so forth—and in every country, regardless of the research team. For example, our licensee in Mexico came up with the same deep metaphors as those that our licensees in China and India uncovered for the same product. In short, these seven metaphors—
Zaltman, Gerald; Zaltman, Lindsay H. (2008-05-06). Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers (Kindle Locations 492-496). Harvard Business Review Press. Kindle Edition.
equilibrium, adjusting, maintaining or offsetting forces, and things as they should be.

Transformation involves changing states or status.

Journeys can be fast or slow—“time flies” but “are we there yet?”—or be “an uphill climb” or “all downhill from here.”
Containers perform two functions: keeping things in and keeping things out. They can protect us or trap us, can be opened and closed, and be positive or negative.
We need resources to survive. A woman refers to her cell phone as her “lifeline,” and a man describes motor oil as his truck’s “lifeblood.” We find resources in nature, manmade creations, or both
Connection (disconnection) encompasses feelings of belonging or exclusion: being kept in or out of the loop, identifying with heroes, drawn to celebrities, or breaking up a relationship.

We human beings need to feel in control of our lives. When people “succumb” to a serious disease, they may feel “powerless.” Or they may vow not to let “this thing ruin my life.”

The "hero" is notably ordinary (The hero is the customer, not the brand)
The brand is the Mentor (Mentors come in several archetypal forms - see Margaret Mark's archetypes)
The mentor brings perspective that acts upon the conscience and consciousness of the hero
The mentor "magically" bestows on the reluctant everyman hero a gift/token/totem that makes the seemingly impossible journey more possible.
Cicero's Caution: "The only good rhetorician is a good rhetorician"
(that is to say, first, we consume brands symbolically in a meaning system,
and then we consume them in an economic or political system.
Stage 1: The ordinary world
The call to adventure
The "hero" is not motivated by deficiency, but by an inner calling to a higher purpose
The hero discerns a lack of balance in the world, but elects to ignore it
Stage 2: Meeting the mentor and refusing the call
The hero is only reluctantly convinced to cross the threshold from the ordinary world to the special world
(in myth - capes, cloaks, staff, sword, slippers, ... In marketing - signifiers of higher-order goals shared in media
Stage 3: Approaching the dragon and siezing the treasure
The mentor must reveal their name - ....in other words - clarify the brand archetype (see list from Margaret Mark)
In which our hero journeys to the center of the magic world, encounters a frightful nemesis (the hero's own shadow) and is aided by the mentor’s magic gift. (LUKE, I AM YOUR FATHER)
Just do it. Think Different. Real Beauty. Think Small.
Stage 4: The road back, ressurection and return

In which our hero brings something of great value to the world and a lesson is finally learned.
“the boon to society,” ... a key feature of the hero’s journey. The treasure that the hero wins in the magic world is not something she keeps for herself, but rather something that she shares with her community. Ultimately, the quest is the selfless act of a hero who has made sacrifices so her world will be a better place."

MORAL OF THE STORY: The moral is the core message that underlies, sometimes subtly and sometimes overtly, every story you tell. The moral can be dressed up in any number of plots, characters, and forms, but it should always be there providing meaning and consistency to your communications.

Conclusion: The Moral Revealed

“ We .. intend a principled transformation in the worldview of our entire society, a revolution of the greatest possible extent that will leave nothing out, changing the life of our nation in every regard ...
It would not have been possible for us to take power or to use it in the ways we have without the radio and the airplane. It is no exaggeration to say that the German revolution, at least in the form it took, would have been impossible without the airplane and the radio. ...[Events of great] social-political significance...reached the entire nation regardless of class, standing, or religion...was primarily the result of the tight centralization, the...up-to-date nature of the German radio. ...But everything should have a relationship to our day. Everything should include the theme of our great reconstructive work... Above all it is necessary to clearly centralize all radio activities, to provide a clear worldview [47]

“ Hitler's dictatorship...made the complete use of all technical means for domination of its own country. Through technical devices like the radio and loudspeaker, 80 million people were deprived of independent thought.[49] (From Nuremburg Trial Transcript of Albert Speer)
Hyundai - 2009 return policy
ICI - broken rocks not dynamite

Proven Seed - The Power to Grow

Customer costs and risks
Experience, Innovation and Brand Utility
Customer insights as tension in motivation
Thinking beyond the advertising space to the total brand space

The Experience Economy
and Metaphor
Freud listed the distorting operations ... it is because of these distortions (the so-called "dream-work") that the manifest content of the dream differs so greatly from the latent dream thought reached through analysis—and it is by reversing these distortions that the latent content is approached.
The operations included:
– one dream object stands for several associations and ideas; thus "dreams are brief, meagre and laconic in comparison with the range and wealth of the dream-thoughts."
– a dream object's emotional significance is separated from its real object or content and attached to an entirely different one that does not raise the censor's suspicions.
– a thought is translated to visual images.
– a symbol replaces an action, person, or idea.
"Sometimes, a cigar
is simply a cigar"
Seminars: March 19

Sabrina Giannone
Sarah Bahyeledin
Sarah Strong
Sarmad Ahmad
Shane Gamble
Shukrit Mookerjee

Blog Post of the Week
March 12 Elaine
March 19 Gabriel
Applied Metaphor

"Concept models" in Experience design
Structuring understanding
Creating shared language
Improving collaboration
Paving the way for change
For reasons that are largely cultural, we tend to associate major scales with happy or triumphant emotions, and minor scales with sad or defeated emotions.

Levitin, Daniel J. (2006-08-03). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession (Kindle Locations 588-589). Penguin Group US. Kindle Edition.
Music in Advertising
Mode and Mood
There are similar conventions for music written in the Western tradition. Certain sequences of pitches evoke calm, others, excitement. The brain basis for this is primarily based on learning, just as we learn that a rising intonation indicates a question. All of us have the innate capacity to learn the linguistic and musical distinctions of whatever culture we are born into, and experience with the music of that culture shapes our neural pathways so that we ultimately internalize a set of rules common to that musical tradition.

Levitin, Daniel J. (2006-08-03). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession (Kindle Locations 418-422). Penguin Group US. Kindle Edition.
Melody and Mood

Pitch is one of the primary means by which musical emotion is conveyed. Mood, excitement, calm, romance, and danger are signaled by a number of factors, but pitch is among the most decisive. A single high note can convey excitement, a single low note sadness.

Pitch in the Pitch
The piccolo, with its high-pitched, shrill, and birdlike sound, tends to evoke flighty, happy moods regardless of the notes it’s playing. Because of this, composers tend to use the piccolo for happy music, or rousing music,
The lumbering, deep sounds of the tuba or double bass are often used to evoke solemnity, gravity, or weight.

Musical activity involves nearly every region of the brain that we know about, and nearly every neural subsystem. Different aspects of the music are handled by different neural regions— the

Levitin, Daniel J. (2006-08-03). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession (Kindle Locations 1317-1318). Penguin Group US. Kindle Edition.
Music listening, performance, and composition engage nearly every area of the brain that we have so far identified, and involve nearly every neural subsystem. Could this fact account for claims that music listening exercises other parts of our minds; that listening to Mozart twenty minutes a day will make us smarter? The power of music to evoke emotions is harnessed by advertising executives, filmmakers, military commanders, and mothers. Advertisers use music to make a soft drink, beer, running shoe, or car seem more hip than their competitors’. Film directors use music to tell us how to feel about scenes that otherwise might be ambiguous, or to augment our feelings at particularly dramatic moments. Think of a typical chase scene in an action film, or the music that might accompany a lone woman climbing a staircase in a dark old mansion: Music is being used to manipulate our emotions, and we tend to accept, if not outright enjoy, the power of music to

Levitin, Daniel J. (2006-08-03). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession (Kindle Locations 176-183). Penguin Group US. Kindle Edition.
"Expectation" and Abduction
Abductive reasoning has beenconsidered one of the most important contributions of Peirce’s philosophy to the studyof creativity and discovery, in science, art and other domains (see Queiroz & Merrell,2005 for a comprehensive account of abduction in different domains). According toPeirce’s account of creativity, the interaction between three kinds of reasoning(abduction, deduction and induction) is responsible for the typical action of the mind:to free the organism from doubt and act in proper ways. The process of liberating themind from doubts begins with the generation of hypotheses. As will be explained inthe third and fourth part of the present article, the main function of abductivereasoning is to generate hypotheses that may clarify or explain an anomalous situationthat prevents the mind from following its habitual path.
Anatomically, two different neural pathways have been suggested that operateconcomitantly and are correlated with the feelings of surprise, as rendered in Figure 2.The fast, limbic, track results, in the case of dangerous stimuli, in negative emotionalstates, and prepares the organism for quick action while being in an unpredictedsituation—being surprised means previously having predicted wrongly. The slowtrack involves cortical areas responsible for providing a contextualized but time-consuming appraisal. The slow appraisal can reach a valence in contrast to theoutcome of the fast track, for instance when the situation analysis reveals that theevent besides surprising was not dangerous to the organism. The contrast between thenegative and the potentially positive appraisal reinforces the final positive state. Thus,for Huron (2006), positive emotions can come from two possibilities: (i) when theanticipation is correct (limbic reward); and (ii) when the anticipation is not correct butis also not dangerous (contrastive valence).

What was the most valuable part of this experience?

What would you discard or replace?

What would you expand upon?

What did you hope to cover that we didn't touch?

If we could do it all again, what would you make different?

What would you tell students considering this course in a future season?

Was it too easy? Was it too hard?

Did you feel supported in your learning?

What could have supported that learning more?

Glen Drummond
e-mail: gdrummond@quarry.com
Phone: 519-664-2999 ex 2226
linkedin: ca.linkedin.com/in/glendrummond/
Your Instructor
Course Overview

The course is designed so that by the end, you should be able to:
a) Interpret and curate "creativity” in marketing, in its prevalent forms: communications, new products, strategy, customer experience and business model innovation.
b) Approach the topic of creativity with an expanded perspective on what obstructs or enables it.
c) Draw upon an inventory of creativity-enhancing techniques and match them with your business circumstances.

Learning Objectives
BU 409
Assignments and Assessments
Mind Map Phase 1 - 5%
Mind Map Phase 2 -20%
"Deep Dives" (3) x 10% each
"Extra Deep Dive (1) 15%
Five-Minute Seminar 15%

Jan 6
Jan 13
Jan 20
Jan 27
Feb 3
March 3
Feb 24
March 10
March 17
March 30
Your Learning Objectives
This is Creative
• Content
• Insight
• Media
• Customer Experience
• Product
• Business Model
• Organizational Design
"Design is about everything, all at once"
Question: What could Valve do next?
"earned versus
Why the study of creativity is not
a frill - but an economic survival skill
for the 21st century
From 2015 mind maps
so is it that "creative people" are different because they have these unions of opposites, or is it that they respond more authentically to the experience of these opposites discerned within themselves - they are willing to take the social risk of a narrative of self that is messier, and less bound by conventions of consistency - both internal and external?

Of course there is no way to know the answer, but the question proposes that "creativity" is less a genetic inheritance, and more a matter of existential choice than is generally believed.
How many uses can you think of for a brick?
Foundational Premises:

"This is Creative"
Kinza Ahmed,
Lolade Ajibola,
Leigh Ansell,
Ellen Basler,
Donna Brenkel

Curation, Connections, Conversation

Thinking Hats - Theory and Practice

1. Ognjen Sucur
2. Alyssa Teal
3. Lisa Marie Vassal
4. Lei Ye
5. Edan Bachar
6. Olesya Bakalyuk
7. Morgan Baronet
8. Alexander Barr
9. Francios Begue


Split up in teams of 4

Follow hats: in this sequence:
Blue White, Green, Yellow, Black, Red

Prepare to summarize for the class
• What did you think up
• How did the process feel
• Craft your observations into a note, and upload to the bonus mark dropbox.
Case For Creative Thinking
How Does Advertising Work?
"What is the theory of the practice?"
Steve Bennet, Founder of Intuit
Advertising works. Experts create it. Is there a coherent expert consensus on cause and effect?
"Media Strategy"

"Creative Strategy"
Theories of the Practice
Operant Conditioning
Skinner, Stimulus Response, the GRP, The Information processing theory, Shannon and Weaver
( Examples of practice - - mindless repetition of retail ads) ("Monetizing eyeballs" with ad banners, )
Political attack ads


Subliminal Messaging Hidden girls in ice cubes, flash frames, unconscious manipulation through hidden content

Public Relations, Mass psychology - Edward Bernays

"The systematic study of mass psychology revealed to students the potentialities of invisible government of society by manipulation of the motives which actuate man in the group. Trotter and Le Bon, who approached the subject in a scientific manner, and Graham Wallas, Walter Lippmann and others who continued with searching studies of the group mind, established that the group has mental characteristics distinct from those of the individual, and is motivated by impulses and emotions which cannot be explained on the basis of what we know of individual psychology. So the question naturally arose: If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing it? "

Advertising response as aesthetic response. :Thus the emphasis on creativity in awards, the emphasis on romanticism in advertising culture, the notion of genius,
John Paul Jones – “Likeability” study. (Cannes). “Cult of creativity” HBR article on what works… (The Big Idea” )


Creativity in Advertising
Is the ad “out of the ordinary”?
Does it depart from stereotypical thinking?
Is it unique?
Does the ad contain ideas that move from one subject to another?
Does it contain different ideas?
Does it shift from one idea to another?
Does the ad contain numerous details?
Does it extend basic ideas and make them more intricate?
Does it contain more details than expected?

Does the ad connect objects that are usually unrelated?
Does it contain unusual connections?
Does it bring unusual items together?

Artistic Value
Is the ad visually or verbally distinctive?
Does it make ideas come to life graphically or verbally?
Is it artistic in its production?

Reception Aesthetics

Persuasion by appeal to reason and emotion: "Salesmanship in print" The "unique selling proposition," "Positioning", "Benefit statements" etc.

Concerned with the issue of "Frames" and "categories." One of the traditions that places value on "customer insights" (Know your audience!)
A long tradition, that adapts with irony to post-modern conditions: "Why Johnny can’t dissent (Thomas Frank)

The study of "semiosis" - the examination of how meaning is created through systems of association. The observation of syntagmatic and paradigmatic choices in constructing meaning

Ramond Williams: Advertising the Magic System
Joseph Campbell's Hero's journey, Gerald Zaltman's Deep Metaphors, Margaret Mark's archetypes
"Sign Wars"
"Thinking Fast and Slow" The contemporary convergence of Cognitive Science and Semiotics

Feb 10


Creativity and Strategy
Feedback on writing


"Three Threats"

Feb 10
Stories of Organizational Barriers to Innovation

Reference 625 Prezi

Innovation Gap Stories (625)
Creativity and Innovation
Some takeaways
• The "bracketing of perceptions"
• Achievement by removing barriers
• "mind forged manacles"
• The ideas most dangerous to us, are the ones we don't stop to think about, and in fact can barely separate from our own sense of "reality"

Innovation is becoming more conceptual
Digital engineering reloaded: Building differentiated advantage in product development

by Dietmar Ahlemann, Francesco Lucciola, Nils Melcher, and Francesco Baldisserri
Originally published by Booz & Company: May 28, 2013
Seminars: 24-Feb
Kush Gandhi,
Samuel Gingrich,
Madison Grossman,
Luc Habauzit,
Kelly Hampson,
Wesley Harper.

Creativity and The Insight Process
Prezi Pre-Loaded:
Little, Evan
Mitchell, Danielle

Matteazzi, Paulina
McMullen, Karly
Ghazlane, Sofia

• System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. • System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration. ... Although System 2 believes itself to be where the action is, the automatic System 1 is the hero of the book. I describe System 1 as effortlessly originating impressions and feelings that are the main sources of the explicit beliefs and deliberate choices of System 2. The automatic operations of System 1 generate surprisingly complex patterns of ideas, but only the slower System 2 can construct thoughts in an orderly series of steps.
“Once I understood why personas were valuable and how they could be put into action, I started using them in my own work, and then something interesting happened: My process became more efficient and fun, while the fruits of my labor became more impactful and useful to others. Never before had I seen such a boost in clarity, productivity and success in my own work. Personas will supercharge your work, too, and help you take your designs to the next level.”
Shlomo Goltz http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/08/06/a-closer-look-at-personas-part-1/
“The purpose of the Persona, I believe, is to add empathetic focus to the design. Empathetic focus. By focus I mean that the design must be clean and coherent. It is not a collection of features added willy-nilly through the life-span of the product, even if each feature by itself makes sense. Rather it is having a clear image of what the product is meant to be -- and what it is not meant to be -- and rejecting features that do not fit, only accepting ones that do. By empathy, I mean an understanding of and identification with the user population, the better to ensure that they will be able to take advantage of the product, to use it readily and easily -- not with frustration but with pleasure.”
Don Norman
Your experience as you look at the woman’s face seamlessly combines what we normally call seeing and intuitive thinking. As surely and quickly as you saw that the young woman’s hair is dark, you knew she is angry. Furthermore, what you saw extended into the future. You sensed that this woman is about to say some very unkind words, probably in a loud and strident voice. A premonition of what she was going to do next came to mind automatically and effortlessly. You did not intend to assess her mood or to anticipate what she might do, and your reaction to the picture did not have the feel of something you did. It just happened to you. It was an instance of fast thinking.

Kahneman, Daniel (2011-11-01). Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kindle Locations 393-398). Doubleday Canada. Kindle Edition.

Blog Reading For Next Week

Workshop: Conflict Motivates Plot







Shekhar, Natasha
Shour, Eliazer
Siragusa, Scott
Tabakian, Justin

March 30
Wrap-up - Creativity
for Marketing Managers

From 2015 mind maps
"The Magic System"
"Diverge, Converge"

"Romanticism & Classicism"

"Thinking Hats"

Basadur, Creative Problem Solving Styles

Martin: Reliability and Validity

Zaltman, Deep metaphors

Mark: Brand Archetypes

Sachs: Brand Storytelling

Kahneman: System 1 & System 2

Huron; Music in Advertisng
Thinking hats


Basadur process

Concept models

Deep metaphors

Brand archetypes

Good Questions

Housekeeping - including Evaluations

Music in Advertising

Case Study - integrating some lessons
Back to the Future
Discussion on Student Questions posed at beginning of term. Can we answer them better together now?
"Ask me anything"
Experience Design - Qualitative review for future sessions
It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for what this delicate little plant needs more than anything, besides stimulation, is freedom. It is a very grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be promoted by means of coercion and a sense of duty. ~ Albert Einstein

Who - About your instructor

- About you - a few things about yourself - and - do you listen to music when you're doing homework

What - About this topic
About this course - Deep dive on the Syllabus

Why - Two perspectives - Robinson, Howard

How - What a class will look like - Ground we'll cover, "good questions"

Where - Resources : Prezi Link, Readings, Extended reading list

Ways you can help make it great: Be present, be curious, read more than expected, read critically, participate in the learning of your classmates

The other 15%...
About your instructor
About you
And - do you listen to music while you do homework?

Any special rules on that?
The four stage model of creativity, circa 1926
In a study of writers, Barron and Donald MacKinnon found that the average creative writer was in the top 15 percent of the general population on all measures of psychopathology covered by the test. 20 But here’s the kicker: They also found that creative writers scored extremely high on all the measures of psychological health!

Kaufman, Scott Barry; Gregoire, Carolyn (2015-12-29). Wired to Create: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Creative Mind (p. xxiii). Penguin Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
"what are your choices when somebody points a gun at your head?"
Mike Ross - "What are you talking about, you do what he says"

"No, you take the gun, you pull out a bigger gun, or you call their bluff or you do any one of a hundred and forty six things..."
Harvey Spectre, Suits
Creative people not only cultivate a wide array of attributes but are also able to adapt— even flourish— by making the best of the wide range of traits and skills that they already possess. This ability to adapt to changing circumstances with fluidity and flexibility is reflected in three main “super-factors” of personality that are highly correlated with creativity: plasticity, divergence, and convergence. 26 Plasticity is characterized by the tendency to explore and engage with novel ideas, objects, and scenarios. 27 Characteristics like openness to experience, high energy, and inspiration are all related to each other, forming the core of this drive for exploration. Divergence reflects a nonconformist mind-set and independent thinking and is related to impulsivity and lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Finally, convergence refers to the ability to conform, put in the hard effort necessary to exercise practicality, and make ideas tenable.

Kaufman, Scott Barry; Gregoire, Carolyn (2015-12-29). Wired to Create: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Creative Mind (p. xxv). Penguin Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
What are some uses for a brick?
30 seconds...

To create, a person must

Have knowledge but forget the knowledge;
See unexpected connections in things but not have a mental disorder;
Work hard but spend time doing nothing;
Create many ideas yet most of them are useless;
Look at the same thing as everyone else, yet see something different;
Desire success but learn how to fail;
Be persistent but not stubborn; and,
Listen to experts but know how to disregard them.
Data Center - co-location business
Successful growth with IT Elite: Google, Netflix, Amazon, Microsoft etc.

Marketing Situation: Business Pivot:
Now redesigning the website to pursue more traditional old-economy enterprises.
How might they redesign the site experience to support that strategy?
Write up your findings in a memo that begins with the name of the participants in the group. Begin with a summary of your conclusions or outcome. Then report on the salient experiences by thinking hat, then conclude with your collective observations on the exercise.
Psychologists have been intensely interested for several decades in the two modes of thinking evoked by the picture of the angry woman and by the multiplication problem, and have offered many labels for them. I adopt terms originally proposed by the psychologists Keith Stanovich and Richard West, and will refer to two systems in the mind, System 1 and System 2. • System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. • System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.

Kahneman, Daniel (2011-11-01). Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kindle Locations 411-417). Doubleday Canada. Kindle Edition.
Bananas, Vomit, 19 minutes in
Workshop: Semiotics: AKA Applied Magic
Workshop Task: • Work in teams of 2-4 people per team
• Create an advertising concept for the Tango E5
• Make use of "The Magic System" - overlay the object with social and personal meanings
• Consider the option that the signifying value of consumption may be part of the utility of the Tango E5

• Represent your work with the sketch of a print ad, describing its key elements, or a storyboard of a tv spot, or a wireframe of a web landing page.

• Prepare to share with the class - explaining the relationship of elements and the meanings conferred upon the product, the consumer, and the act of consuming
• Print your names on the workshop output, take a picture of it, and upload it to the Bonus workshop folder.

The Target: Owners of large residential properties in North America
A potential Insight: Some see property care as recreation, some don't.
Textual Interpretation of the Middle Ages
"The four meanings"
• The "historical" - literal
• The allegorical - the historical story as metaphor for another story
• The tropological - the 'moral' of the story
• The anagogical - the prophesy implicit in the story
Source: http://catholicism.org/four-meanings-scripture.html
Advertising as "Palimpsest"

" In this ideal text, the networks are many and interact, without any one of them being able to surpass the rest; this text is a galaxy of signifiers, not a structure of signifieds; it has no beginning; it is reversible; we gain access to it by several entrances, none of which can be authoritatively declared to be the main one; the codes it mobilizes extend as far as the eye can reach, they are indeterminable […] the systems of meaning can take over this absolutely plural text, but their number is never closed, based as it is on the infinity of language."
Roland Barthes, from S/Z

Quoted: https://lucian.uchicago.edu/blogs/mediatheory/keywords/palimpsest/
For Next Week:
Clearly print the names of project participants on your work. Each member of the group needs to submit a copy to this dropbox. Take a photo of your concept. Import the photo file into a document, and provide some commentary in the document on the creative idea you generated. State specifically how the elements you included and integrated in the ad execution borrow something from the culture and attach that meaning to the object and to the act of buying, consuming, and/or owning it.
This is for Marks!
Dropbox submission instructions
"What are you reading Peter?"

"It sure as hell isn't a business book"
CS Pierce was a 19th Century American Pragmatist – a contemporary of Emerson, Henry and William James, and the father of the American branch of Semiotics – the study of systems of meaning. His work is highly applicable to the challenge at hand.

Pierce offered a taxonomy that helps to sharper our vocabulary to tackle this problem.

Examples – Iconic - Mens & Women’s washroom signs – pick up on a feature of physical appearance to trigger access to a shared body of meaning

Indexical - “where there’s smoke, there’s fire”, “if it walks like a duck and talks like a duck, it’s probably a duck” … smoke is an idex of fire, quacking is an index of a duck

Symbolic – “those French – they have a different word for everything….” cultural agreement is the essence of symbolic signification - it is the foundation of language, and it is by far the most flexible and powerful resource we have available to us.


Music Changes Everything
But Why?
Full transcript