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Origins of the Political Parties

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Tony Litherland

on 22 March 2016

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Transcript of Origins of the Political Parties

Origins of the First Political Parties
Federalists and Republicans

By Becca Jirik and Noah Miller

Why Political Parties Started...
Started because of the constitution. It started because politicians disagreed on many issues (like Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson).
Some examples of issues were if the state or federal government should have more power, the interpretation of the constitution, trade (what countries) and laws + acts (like the Alien Act).
Political parties created were technically considered informal.
Now there was a strong central government, so something had to be done about disagreements about foreign policy, state debt, etc.
Some thought it was unconstitutional because it never specifically said there could be political parties; some interpreted it loosely and some literally.
Federalist Party -Views and Beliefs
The first party created, in 1792
Loosely interpreted the constitution
Formed by Alexander Hamilton
Was strongest in northeastern America because there was more manufacturing/more industrialized.
Strong centralized government
Supported neutrality, excise tax
Stopping the whiskey rebellion showed that they thought it was necessary
Federalists favored England, compared to France, for example, in foreign relations.
Newspaper published was the National Gazette- written by Philip Freneau. He was appointed by Jefferson and criticized Republican Party.
"Jeffersonians wanted dictatorship based on 'mob rule'"
Liked the National Bank
Similar to Republican Party today- more conservative
Interesting Fact: In 1804, after the Louisiana Purchase, the Federalist Party was never powerful again. It was only powerful for about 12 years!
Federalists mostly were and were supported by "...landholders, merchants, and men of learned professions." -Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton also said separate states "...would hardly last."
Why did Hamilton say this? He thought states would only be successful if united. He thought having the federal government controlling foreign policy, currency, and taxes would be better.
Were more sympathetic to British- Hamilton claimed "We think in English."
Here's a link to the Federalist Party symbol- http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/2/3/9/7677223161965284.gif
Main Members for Federalists
Alexander Hamilton
John Adams- (the first and last federalist president!)
John Jay
George Washington sympathetic to federalists; but he never considered himself one.
Charles Pinckney
Wealthy land owners, mainly in urban areas, supported the federalists. These people usually supported manufacturing also.
Republican Party- Views and Beliefs
Sometimes called the Democratic-Republican political party
It was formed between the years of 1791-1793 by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
It only lasted until 1825.
This political party was strongest in the south because there were more farmers and plantation owners.
Believed that the constitution should be strictly enforced and interpreted literally
"Hamiltonians wanted a monarchy, like the British had, with a king."
Were more sympathetic to British- Hamilton claimed "We think in English."
Strong in the South, weak in the North East
Didn't like the Bank
Didn't support the French Revolution
However, they did approve of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Similar to the Democratic Party today- more liberal.
U.S. Political Party History
First there was the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party.
Second Party System: The Democratic-Republican Party was replaced by the Jacksonian democrats and the Whig Party. Nothing really replaced the Federalist Party.
Third Party System: Then, the Republican Party was established and the Whig Party still existed.
Main Members
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
James Monroe
George Clinton
Farmers and yeomans supported Republican Party, because the Republicans wanted an economy based on agriculture, and not manufacturing.
Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton
Full transcript