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Slavery+Disunion 1820-1860

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of Slavery+Disunion 1820-1860

Slavery+Division in the US
"The firebell in the night"-Thomas Jefferson
first 2 colonies___________+_________legalize slavery

Mason-Dixon Line separates slave+free states

NW Ordinance marks first time Congress outlaws slavery in US territory
3/5ths Compromise

Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise-1820
-proposed to Congress by Henry Clay

-Clay's idea had 3 parts
1.Missouri comes in as a slave state
2.Maine breaks away from Massachusetts and come in a free state
3. The 36/30 Line divides north+free and south+slave
Spread of Slavery
-as Americans moved and populated the west, the creation of new states became possible
-free state wanted more free states, and vice versa
-more states meant more...
-main issue was NOT slavery in the south, main issue was...
-from 1820-1840's most Americans believe the issue of slavery to be resolved
-1846 Mexican-American War begins
-US is victorious and new land gained...where?
Henry Clay
-born in Virginia in 1777, but would move to Kentucky as a young boy
-became one of Kentucky's senators in 1810 and supported the War of 1812
-served as John Quincy Adam's Secretary of State
-ran and lost the presidency 4 times, but served as Speaker of the House 3 times
-known as "The Great Pacifier" for his ability to bridge the gap between the 2 political parties
-opposed the Mex-Amer War and the annexation of Texas
Wilmont Proviso-1846
-idea proposed by Congressman David Wilmont of Penn.
-said that slavery would be banned in all land acquired from Mexico
-passed the House (northern majority) twice
-defeated in the Senate (southern majority) twice
-further fueled sectionalism in the US
-loyalty to a state or area above that of the nation as a whole
-majority attitude of Americans
-knew their state, not the nation
-"The United States are..."
-minority in the north
-slavery must end everywhere
-minority in the south
-south should break away and from free slave holding nation
-the majority of Americans north+south
-northerners don't care slavery exist in the south
-southerners aren't thinking of rebelling
-eventually people will move away from the middle and become more radical as the debate over slavery intensifies
1848 Election
-Whig Party run Zachary Taylor
-Democrats run Lewis Cass
-Marin Van Buren runs as a 3rd party candidate called the Free Soil Party

-Free Soilers say ALL new territories should be free

-Cass runs on the platform of "popular sovereignty"
-Popular Sovereignty is the idea that people living in a new territory can vote on if they want it to be slave or free...regardless of where it is located
-throws out Missouri Compromise 36/30 Line

-Taylor and Whigs win the election
Van Buren
Compromise of 1850
-debate was boiling over on what to do with the territory gained from Mexico
-Henry Clay was called upon again to figure something out
-came up with 5 point compromise





-Compromise of 1850 favored the north
-supported by Clay+ VP Millard Fillmore
-opposed by ___________+Pres. Taylor

-Taylor died in office in 1850, Fillmore becomes president and signs the Compromise into law
Fugitive Slave Act
-originally passed in 1793
-said that US govt was required to go after runaway slaves
-Govt could only do so much, limited by the power of the states
-many northern states passed Personal Liberty Laws to fight the Fugitive Slave Act
-runaway slaves were given trials to fight for their freedom in many northern states...some even provided runaways with attorneys
-Southerners demanded the FSA to be strengthened as part of the Compromise of 1850
-FSA was strengthened in 3 ways



-increased the number of abolitionists in the north
-8 northern states countered by increasing PLL and making it much harder for masters to prove a runaway was former slave
-Wisconsin Supreme Court declared the FSA unconstitutional
-acts of the northern states infuriated the south
-Southern states felt the national govt was not enforcing the FSA+was being controlled by the northern states
Uncle Tom's Cabin
-written by housewife Harriet Beecher Stowe
-published in 1856
-300,000 copies sold in US in the first year...1,000,000 in Britain
-most popular book of 19th Century
-fueled abolitionists cause in the north...infuriated the south
-an early form of "docu-drama"
-only further polarizes the north+south
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1852
-territories of Nebraska and Kansas seek to join the union and are not part of the Compromise of 1850
- idea proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois
-pop. sov. in Kansas and Nebraska territories
-the 3 presidents before Lincoln (Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan) are all passive
-rarely use the power of the veto and allow many anti-slavery bills to pass without change or compromise
-Kansas-Neb Act will result in bloodshed from 1856-1860
Bleeding Kansas
-guerillas warfare between abolitionists+proslavery forces
-proslavery men were called Border Ruffians
-HQ in Lecompton, Missouri...would cross the border into Kansas to illegally vote for slavery
-antislavery forces led by John Brown, HQ in Lawrence, Kansas

-Border Ruffians attacked and burned Lawrence in 1856
-John Brown responded with Massacre at Osawatomie
-fighting would go on for 4 years..180 people (mostly civilians) would be killed
-Kansas would still enter as a free state

-Border Ruffians asked Sen. Douglas for an addition to the Kansas-Neb Act to protect slavery
-Douglas refused
-when Douglas ran for president in 1860, it caused a split in the Democratic party b/c Southern democrats would not support him

Charles Sumner
-Sumner was a Senator from Mass.
-was an abolitionist and gave a speech to Congress soon after the burning of Lawrence, Kansas
-denounced proslavers as violent+primitive...also openly insulted proslavery members of Congress including a few who weren't in attendance
-seen as a major slight of honor and sign of disrespect
-one of the proslavery men insulted was old Andrew Butler of SC
-Preston Brooks (Butler's nephew) came in the next day and nearly beat Sumner to death with his cane
-broke the cane in half, Sumner was forced to retire and sit out of Congress for 3 years
-Southerners applauded Brooks...Northerners held up Sumner as a martyr

-1857...The Dred Scott Case-
-Cheif Justice Roger Taney (Maryland)
-Pres. James Buchanan (northerner w/ southern sympathy)
-Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri
-Scott's master took him to live in Wisconsin for a few years..then his master died but Scott stayed a slave

-Scott sued for his freedom saying he should have been set free b/c he lived in Wisconsin
-Buchanan told Taney he needs to make the issue over slavery go away
-Supreme Court ruling is unprecedented
-3 part ruling




-judicial activism
Republican Party is Formed
-originally formed in Wisconsin
-combination of 2 groups



-platform=keep slavery out of the west...not abolition

-first candidate runs in the 1856 election______________
-loses to Democrat James Buchanan
Abraham Lincoln-childhood
-born in Kentucky in 1809
-had a sister, Sarah, who was 2 years older
-younger brother, Thomas, died as a child
-moved to southern Illinois in 1816, mother died 2 years later
-father re-married a woman named Sara Johnston
-Abe was close to his step-mother, had a bad relationship with his father
-did not want to be a farmer, had no idea what to do with his life by 1831
Abraham Lincoln-young man
-took some trips to New Orleans where he first saw slavery
-did not like slavery, made him uncomfortable
-met a woman, Ann Rutledge, in the town of New Salem, IL
-first love...she died at age of 22 of cholera
-lost mom, brother, sister, and Ann all before the age of 30

-decided he wanted to be a lawyer
-moved to Springfield, IL and apprenticed himself to different lawyers
-met Stephen Douglas and Mary Todd living in Springfield
-married Mary in 1842
-would have 4 children together

Robert-died in 1926 and only Lincoln to live to adulthood, had a distant relationship with his dad

Edward-died in 1850 from fever at age of 4

William(Willie)-died in 1862 at age 11, was very close and well liked by both his parents

Thomas(Tad)-died in 1871 at age 18 from heart failure, spoiled as a child and poorly behaved
Unelectable Today
-Lincoln would not be elected president if he ran today





-joined the Republican party in 1855
1858 Senate Race
-Lincoln vs ___________________
-Lincoln knew he wouldn't win
-why would he run?
-what did he hope to get in 1860?

-Lincoln challenged Douglass to 6 debates in cities all over Illinois
-Douglas was a legendary debator
-newspapers from major eastern cities covered the debates
-these "Lincoln Douglas Debates" were really just the two men giving speeches in turn
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
-mainly focused on the issue of slavery in the west
-Lincoln believed the US could not exist being half slave+half free...his heroes were Henry Clay and T Jeff
-Douglas says it can
-Lincoln loses the Senate race, but he is happy about the exposure and his performance
John Brown's Raid-October, 1854
-leaves Kansas and sets his sights on the US Arsenal in Harper's Ferry, VA
-conceives a plan to raid the armory, steal thousands of weapons+ammo, arm local slaves, start a slave rebellion
-Sec. of War________________catches wind of the raid
-sends 300 troops under command of______________ to stop Brown
-Brown and his 21 men are soon trapped in the firehouse, use it to make a final stand
-raiders are forced to surrender a few hours later after Brown is wounded
-US takes 2 casualties/10 raiders killed+7 captured/15 civilians killed or wounded
Martyr or Terrorist?
-Brown is hanged
-his last words predict a war to end slavery
-3 important figures at the hanging

-Brown was a little loopy...but not crazy
-South saw him as a traitor and terrorist
-North embraced him as a hero and martyr
-dominated by sectional voting
-Democrat party splits between north+south
-3rd party (Constitutional Union) emerges
-2nd election for Republicans

N. Democrats=
S. Democrats=
Const. Union=
Republican Nomination
-originally the leading candidates for the nomination were William Seward and Salmon Chase
-Lincoln is third

-Lincoln gives a speech (Cooper Union Speech) in February, 1860 in New York
-people laugh at his look, voice, and accent
-people began to listen as he addressed 3 major issues

-makes a great impression
-newspapers around the country begin to report directly on Lincoln
-sends people to the Republican Convention in Chicago..does not attend
-told his advisors to put his name in the 3rd round of voting
-steals the vote in the 3rd round+recieves nomination
-Seward will be Sec of State+Chases Sec of Treasury
Bell=600,000 votes
Breckinridge=850,000 votes
Douglas=1,300,000 votes
Lincoln-1,800,000 votes
-____________________said they would leave the Union if Lincoln was elected
-December, 1860 secession begins
-no longer part of the US
-pull representatives+senatoers from Congress
-will not listen to Federal govt

-February, 1861...6 more states leave the Union
-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas
-form a new country__________________________
-elect__________________as president

-what do you notice about these states?
-4 reasons these states leave the Union




Lincoln's Trip to Washington, March 1861
-Lincoln received a lot of death threats soon after his election
-friends advised him to take them seriously
-hired Allan Pinkerton, first detective in Chicago
-Pinkerton's investigations saved Lincoln from assassination in Baltimore

-Pinkerton would later become director of US intelligence during the Civil War
-first to truly innovate surveillance+undercover work
-Intelligence Service was forerunner of_____________
Inaugural Speech
-Lincoln believed secession was unconstitutional
-does not threaten the south, wants them to come back on their own
-avoid war
-Bombardment of Ft. Sumter occurs a week after the speech

-Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee join the Confederacy days after Ft. Sumter

Ft. Sumter
-Southern states began seizing US property+claiming it part of the Confederacy

-located in the harbor of Charleston, SC
-under command of Major Robert Anderson (Kent)
-SC rebels under command of Gen. PGT Beauregard placed cannons around the fort and demanded its surrender

-Anderson only had a small garrison and enough supplies for 3 days
-Lincoln does not want him to fire...why?
-What are Lincoln's options?

-Lincoln decided to send supplies+informs Beauregard of his plan

-Beauregard does not want to allow Ft. Sumter to be resupplied+demands for Anderson's surrender again
-Anderson sent message back to Beauregard telling him to take the fort if he wants it

-Confederates are ordered to fire upon Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861
-Anderson knows he will lose but decided to fight back with some of his guns
-Shell the fort for 2 days+supplies never come
-forced to surrender on April 14
-no casualties for either side
-Anderson's family disowns him

The War Begins
-Lincoln declares the Southern states to be in rebellion on April 15
-issues call for 100,000 volunteers
-the last 4 southern states secede between April 17-May 20
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