Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Slavery+Disunion 1820-1860

No description

Mark Twain Carroll

on 22 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Slavery+Disunion 1820-1860

Slavery+Division in the US
"The firebell in the night"-Thomas Jefferson
first 2 colonies___________+_________legalize slavery

Mason-Dixon Line separates slave+free states

NW Ordinance marks first time Congress outlaws slavery in US territory
3/5ths Compromise

Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise-1820
-proposed to Congress by Henry Clay

-Clay's idea had 3 parts
1.Missouri comes in as a slave state
2.Maine breaks away from Massachusetts and come in a free state
3. The 36/30 Line divides north+free and south+slave
Spread of Slavery
-as Americans moved and populated the west, the creation of new states became possible
-free state wanted more free states, and vice versa
-more states meant more...
-main issue was NOT slavery in the south, main issue was...
-from 1820-1840's most Americans believe the issue of slavery to be resolved
-1846 Mexican-American War begins
-US is victorious and new land gained...where?
Henry Clay
-born in Virginia in 1777, but would move to Kentucky as a young boy
-became one of Kentucky's senators in 1810 and supported the War of 1812
-served as John Quincy Adam's Secretary of State
-ran and lost the presidency 4 times, but served as Speaker of the House 3 times
-known as "The Great Pacifier" for his ability to bridge the gap between the 2 political parties
-opposed the Mex-Amer War and the annexation of Texas
Wilmont Proviso-1846
-idea proposed by Congressman David Wilmont of Penn.
-said that slavery would be banned in all land acquired from Mexico
-passed the House (northern majority) twice
-defeated in the Senate (southern majority) twice
-further fueled sectionalism in the US
-loyalty to a state or area above that of the nation as a whole
-majority attitude of Americans
-knew their state, not the nation
-"The United States are..."
-minority in the north
-slavery must end everywhere
-minority in the south
-south should break away and from free slave holding nation
-the majority of Americans north+south
-northerners don't care slavery exist in the south
-southerners aren't thinking of rebelling
-eventually people will move away from the middle and become more radical as the debate over slavery intensifies
1848 Election
-Whig Party run Zachary Taylor
-Democrats run Lewis Cass
-Marin Van Buren runs as a 3rd party candidate called the Free Soil Party

-Free Soilers say ALL new territories should be free

-Cass runs on the platform of "popular sovereignty"
-Popular Sovereignty is the idea that people living in a new territory can vote on if they want it to be slave or free...regardless of where it is located
-throws out Missouri Compromise 36/30 Line

-Taylor and Whigs win the election
Van Buren
Compromise of 1850
-debate was boiling over on what to do with the territory gained from Mexico
-Henry Clay was called upon again to figure something out
-came up with 5 point compromise





-Compromise of 1850 favored the north
-supported by Clay+ VP Millard Fillmore
-opposed by ___________+Pres. Taylor

-Taylor died in office in 1850, Fillmore becomes president and signs the Compromise into law
Fugitive Slave Act
-originally passed in 1793
-said that US govt was required to go after runaway slaves
-Govt could only do so much, limited by the power of the states
-many northern states passed Personal Liberty Laws to fight the Fugitive Slave Act
-runaway slaves were given trials to fight for their freedom in many northern states...some even provided runaways with attorneys
-Southerners demanded the FSA to be strengthened as part of the Compromise of 1850
-FSA was strengthened in 3 ways



-increased the number of abolitionists in the north
-8 northern states countered by increasing PLL and making it much harder for masters to prove a runaway was former slave
-Wisconsin Supreme Court declared the FSA unconstitutional
-acts of the northern states infuriated the south
-Southern states felt the national govt was not enforcing the FSA+was being controlled by the northern states
Uncle Tom's Cabin
-written by housewife Harriet Beecher Stowe
-published in 1856
-300,000 copies sold in US in the first year...1,000,000 in Britain
-most popular book of 19th Century
-fueled abolitionists cause in the north...infuriated the south
-an early form of "docu-drama"
-only further polarizes the north+south
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1852
-territories of Nebraska and Kansas seek to join the union and are not part of the Compromise of 1850
- idea proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois
-pop. sov. in Kansas and Nebraska territories
-the 3 presidents before Lincoln (Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan) are all passive
-rarely use the power of the veto and allow many anti-slavery bills to pass without change or compromise
-Kansas-Neb Act will result in bloodshed from 1856-1860
Bleeding Kansas
-guerillas warfare between abolitionists+proslavery forces
-proslavery men were called Border Ruffians
-HQ in Lecompton, Missouri...would cross the border into Kansas to illegally vote for slavery
-antislavery forces led by John Brown, HQ in Lawrence, Kansas

-Border Ruffians attacked and burned Lawrence in 1856
-John Brown responded with Massacre at Osawatomie
-fighting would go on for 4 years..180 people (mostly civilians) would be killed
-Kansas would still enter as a free state

-Border Ruffians asked Sen. Douglas for an addition to the Kansas-Neb Act to protect slavery
-Douglas refused
-when Douglas ran for president in 1860, it caused a split in the Democratic party b/c Southern democrats would not support him

Charles Sumner
-Sumner was a Senator from Mass.
-was an abolitionist and gave a speech to Congress soon after the burning of Lawrence, Kansas
-denounced proslavers as violent+primitive...also openly insulted proslavery members of Congress including a few who weren't in attendance
-seen as a major slight of honor and sign of disrespect
-one of the proslavery men insulted was old Andrew Butler of SC
-Preston Brooks (Butler's nephew) came in the next day and nearly beat Sumner to death with his cane
-broke the cane in half, Sumner was forced to retire and sit out of Congress for 3 years
-Southerners applauded Brooks...Northerners held up Sumner as a martyr

-1857...The Dred Scott Case-
-Cheif Justice Roger Taney (Maryland)
-Pres. James Buchanan (northerner w/ southern sympathy)
-Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri
-Scott's master took him to live in Wisconsin for a few years..then his master died but Scott stayed a slave

-Scott sued for his freedom saying he should have been set free b/c he lived in Wisconsin
-Buchanan told Taney he needs to make the issue over slavery go away
-Supreme Court ruling is unprecedented
-3 part ruling




-judicial activism
Republican Party is Formed
-originally formed in Wisconsin
-combination of 2 groups



-platform=keep slavery out of the west...not abolition

-first candidate runs in the 1856 election______________
-loses to Democrat James Buchanan
Abraham Lincoln-childhood
-born in Kentucky in 1809
-had a sister, Sarah, who was 2 years older
-younger brother, Thomas, died as a child
-moved to southern Illinois in 1816, mother died 2 years later
-father re-married a woman named Sara Johnston
-Abe was close to his step-mother, had a bad relationship with his father
-did not want to be a farmer, had no idea what to do with his life by 1831
Abraham Lincoln-young man
-took some trips to New Orleans where he first saw slavery
-did not like slavery, made him uncomfortable
-met a woman, Ann Rutledge, in the town of New Salem, IL
-first love...she died at age of 22 of cholera
-lost mom, brother, sister, and Ann all before the age of 30

-decided he wanted to be a lawyer
-moved to Springfield, IL and apprenticed himself to different lawyers
-met Stephen Douglas and Mary Todd living in Springfield
-married Mary in 1842
-would have 4 children together

Robert-died in 1926 and only Lincoln to live to adulthood, had a distant relationship with his dad

Edward-died in 1850 from fever at age of 4

William(Willie)-died in 1862 at age 11, was very close and well liked by both his parents

Thomas(Tad)-died in 1871 at age 18 from heart failure, spoiled as a child and poorly behaved
Unelectable Today
-Lincoln would not be elected president if he ran today





-joined the Republican party in 1855
1858 Senate Race
-Lincoln vs ___________________
-Lincoln knew he wouldn't win
-why would he run?
-what did he hope to get in 1860?

-Lincoln challenged Douglass to 6 debates in cities all over Illinois
-Douglas was a legendary debator
-newspapers from major eastern cities covered the debates
-these "Lincoln Douglas Debates" were really just the two men giving speeches in turn
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
-mainly focused on the issue of slavery in the west
-Lincoln believed the US could not exist being half slave+half free...his heroes were Henry Clay and T Jeff
-Douglas says it can
-Lincoln loses the Senate race, but he is happy about the exposure and his performance
John Brown's Raid-October, 1854
-leaves Kansas and sets his sights on the US Arsenal in Harper's Ferry, VA
-conceives a plan to raid the armory, steal thousands of weapons+ammo, arm local slaves, start a slave rebellion
-Sec. of War________________catches wind of the raid
-sends 300 troops under command of______________ to stop Brown
-Brown and his 21 men are soon trapped in the firehouse, use it to make a final stand
-raiders are forced to surrender a few hours later after Brown is wounded
-US takes 2 casualties/10 raiders killed+7 captured/15 civilians killed or wounded
Martyr or Terrorist?
-Brown is hanged
-his last words predict a war to end slavery
-3 important figures at the hanging

-Brown was a little loopy...but not crazy
-South saw him as a traitor and terrorist
-North embraced him as a hero and martyr
-dominated by sectional voting
-Democrat party splits between north+south
-3rd party (Constitutional Union) emerges
-2nd election for Republicans

N. Democrats=
S. Democrats=
Const. Union=
Republican Nomination
-originally the leading candidates for the nomination were William Seward and Salmon Chase
-Lincoln is third

-Lincoln gives a speech (Cooper Union Speech) in February, 1860 in New York
-people laugh at his look, voice, and accent
-people began to listen as he addressed 3 major issues

-makes a great impression
-newspapers around the country begin to report directly on Lincoln
-sends people to the Republican Convention in Chicago..does not attend
-told his advisors to put his name in the 3rd round of voting
-steals the vote in the 3rd round+recieves nomination
-Seward will be Sec of State+Chases Sec of Treasury
Bell=600,000 votes
Breckinridge=850,000 votes
Douglas=1,300,000 votes
Lincoln-1,800,000 votes
-____________________said they would leave the Union if Lincoln was elected
-December, 1860 secession begins
-no longer part of the US
-pull representatives+senatoers from Congress
-will not listen to Federal govt

-February, 1861...6 more states leave the Union
-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas
-form a new country__________________________
-elect__________________as president

-what do you notice about these states?
-4 reasons these states leave the Union




Lincoln's Trip to Washington, March 1861
-Lincoln received a lot of death threats soon after his election
-friends advised him to take them seriously
-hired Allan Pinkerton, first detective in Chicago
-Pinkerton's investigations saved Lincoln from assassination in Baltimore

-Pinkerton would later become director of US intelligence during the Civil War
-first to truly innovate surveillance+undercover work
-Intelligence Service was forerunner of_____________
Inaugural Speech
-Lincoln believed secession was unconstitutional
-does not threaten the south, wants them to come back on their own
-avoid war
-Bombardment of Ft. Sumter occurs a week after the speech

-Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee join the Confederacy days after Ft. Sumter

Ft. Sumter
-Southern states began seizing US property+claiming it part of the Confederacy

-located in the harbor of Charleston, SC
-under command of Major Robert Anderson (Kent)
-SC rebels under command of Gen. PGT Beauregard placed cannons around the fort and demanded its surrender

-Anderson only had a small garrison and enough supplies for 3 days
-Lincoln does not want him to fire...why?
-What are Lincoln's options?

-Lincoln decided to send supplies+informs Beauregard of his plan

-Beauregard does not want to allow Ft. Sumter to be resupplied+demands for Anderson's surrender again
-Anderson sent message back to Beauregard telling him to take the fort if he wants it

-Confederates are ordered to fire upon Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861
-Anderson knows he will lose but decided to fight back with some of his guns
-Shell the fort for 2 days+supplies never come
-forced to surrender on April 14
-no casualties for either side
-Anderson's family disowns him

The War Begins
-Lincoln declares the Southern states to be in rebellion on April 15
-issues call for 100,000 volunteers
-the last 4 southern states secede between April 17-May 20
Full transcript