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Thomas Jefferson

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Adriana Hong

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson
Background Information
Born on April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Virginia

Politics for Jefferson
Election of 1800
First election between JAdams and Jefferson
Supporters of each candidate made lots of horrible rumors about the other side
Aaron Burr and Jefferson tied for electoral votes
Hamilton chose to support Jefferson b/c he thought that Jefferson was the "lesser of two evils"
Jefferson became President!
Crystalina Guo, Adriana Hong, Austin Kuo, and Jon Lee

Became a lawyer in 1769

Louisiana Purchase
Huge controversy
Jefferson was a huge proponent of strict interpretation of Constitution
Buying land was not listed as one of the President's powers in the Constitution
Bought in 1803
Reelection in 1804

Previous jobs: statesman, diplomat, author, scientist, architect, and apostle

Died on July 4, 1826

Witnessed Patrick Henry’s stand against the Stamp Act
Elected to the House of Burgesses in 1769

Jefferson Republican candidate
Adams Federalist candidate
Supporters of each candidate slandered the other candidate
The candidates themselves did not participate in the verbal fights
Aaron Burr and Jefferson, both Republican candidates, tied for presidency
The decision then went to Congress
Alexander Hamilton greatly disliked Burr
He convinced delegates to vote in favor of Jefferson
Jefferson won the election and became president
"When the people fear the government, there is tyranny. When the government fears the people, there is liberty."
-Thomas Jefferson
"election of 1796." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
Election of 1796
The election for the position of the second president of the US
Jefferson Democratic-Republican candidate
Adams Federalist candidate
The candidates did not campaign
Adams won the presidency with 71 electoral votes
Jefferson came in second with 68 electoral votes
Outcome: the nation had a president and vice president who represented two opposing factions
The Twelfth Amendment
Amends the procedure for electing the President and the Vice President.
Selected as a delegate for the Constitutional Convention
Unlike the previous election, where there was a tight race, this election was won by a landslide
Jefferson Republican candidate

Pinckney Federalist candidate
The Federalist Party was far too disorganized
The Federalists' campaign could not compete with the Republicans' structured one
Jefferson won the election with 162 electoral votes
Pinckney had a meager amount of 14 electoral votes
"election of 1804." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
Alien and Sedition Acts
"Thomas Jefferson." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
Jefferson disagreed with Adams
He believed that the Acts prevented freedom of speech and weakened any political opposition
Alexander Hamilton
John Adams supported the majority of Hamilton's programs
Trouble for Adams
Chaos caused by the Alien and Sedition Acts
International crisis from the French Revolution
No success in Hamilton's economic programs
Thomas Jefferson's reaction to Hamilton's programs
"To preserve the independence of the people, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt."
Jefferson's Presidency
Jefferson began his term by reducing the Federalist influence on the government
He reduced the national debt and cut taxes
A great waste, a wilderness unpeopled with any beings except wolves and wandering Indians. We are to give money of which we have too little, for land which we already have too much"
-Boston Columbian Centinel
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury + others appt'd as justices before Adam's presidency ended
Jefferson told Madison not to deliver the commissions b/c never delivered
M+Others sued for their positions
Brought question of "judicial review"
Judicial review-- "Can the Court nullify actions of Congress that are unconstitutional?"

Answer: YES

Result: Supreme Court assumed equal power as the other branches
McBride, Alex. "Marbury v. Madison (1803)." PBS. PBS, Dec. 2006. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
Napoleon sold Louisiana Purchase to Jefferson
Jefferson's Actions
Advisers convinced Jefferson to buy Louisiana
Jefferson got around strict/loose interpretation problem by making treaty w/ Napoleon
Bought Louisiana Purchase as part of the treaty
Sent Lewis and Clark to explore Louisiana
Expansion of West = lessening of Federalist influence
Most radical group (Essex Junto) tried to secede from Union - Northern Confederacy (New England, NJ, NY)
Hamilton shot that down
Burr Conspiracy
Essex turned to Burr for mayoral candidate-lost
Burr blamed Hamilton - duel, Hamilton dies
Burr flees and joins white settlers for Mexico and gvnr of Louisiana, Gen. Wilkinson
Wilkinson betrays Burr and reports that Burr wanted to create own country in Mexico
Jefferson brings Burr back for trial
US gains lots of new territory
"Dismemberment of our empire will be a clear sacrifice of great positive advantages without any counterbalancing good, administering no relief to our real disease, which is democracy."
- Alexander Hamilton, in response to the Essex Junto
Native Problems
Jeffers n's Actions
Allowed the president to imprison or deport "suspicious" aliens and banned speech against the government.
This peaceful transition of power became known as the "Revolution of 1800"
Conflict arises after the Chesapeake-Leopard incident

Two views in conflict: William Henry Harrison and Tecumseh
Appoints William Henry Harrison
Future 9th American President
Veteran Indian fighter who supported Jefferson's ideas of westward expansion
Appointed governor by Jefferson in 1801 to help solve problem
Jefferson made decision forced Indians to assimilate into agrarian culture or migrate, but forcing them ultimately having to give up land rights
Harrison implemented Jefferson's plan
Influencial religious leader for Native Americans
Believed that a united force of the Indians of the Mississippi Valley could halt white expansion
Believed that the treaties that the tribes had signed had given the United States no real claims over lands
Battle between Tecumseh and Harrison: Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh lost battle and followers, but still many warriors fighting along the frontier afterwards
Was suing the right/constitutional thing to do?
(Hint: Yes, technically, bc of the Judiciary Act of 1789)
Marbury loses-- Marshall decided it wasn't constitutional bc that act made by Congress was unconstitutional

(Congress was overstepping)

Brought question of "judicial review"
Americans are left with the belief that the only way to make the West safe is to drive out the British
Much encouragement and many supplies for the Native American uprising had come from the British in Canada
Full transcript