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CHAPTER 16: COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM

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Hannah Giswold

on 16 January 2015

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Transcript of CHAPTER 16: COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM

THE CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS
In the Local Level
CHAPTER 16: COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM
In the Central Government
The Filipino elite:
appointed as members
of the Philippine Commission
Why the Elite?
Two Reasons:
The Cultural Communities
In Cultural Communities
Involvement during the Military Phase 1899-1913
Schurman Commission
• Also known as The First Philippine Commission
Filipino Involvement in
the Pursuit of
American Colonialism

Created by
President William McKinley
on January 20, 1899
Members:
1. George Dewey
2. Charles H. Denby
3. Elwell S. Otis
4. Jacob G. Schurman (HEAD)
5. Dean C. Worcester
Tasked to study the situation in the Philippines and make recommendations on how the US should proceed
Landowning class & the Ilustrados
Negros Island, 1898
Decided, upon the entry if the United States,
to cooperate with the American colonialists
1. Juan Araneta
2. Jose Luzuriaga
3. Leandro Locsin
4. Demetrio Larena
5. Agustin Montilla
Provisional Government
(November 1898)
Welcomed by the
military government
under General E. Otis
(February 1899)
Creation of Visayan Military
District by General Otis
(March 1, 1899)
with Genreal James F. Smith
as Gov. of Negros
Negros (Negrense Provincial Junta) became a useful ally
in the American
countermeasures against
the Malolos government
Quintin Salas and Zoilo Mauricio led Dionisio Magbuela ''Papa Isio''
1901
American colonial government could disclose the pacification of the islands except in the
Muslim South until the abolition of the military-governed MORO PROVINCE in 1913.
Planned by Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano
of the Supreme Court
national level of administration
performed executive
and legislative powers
and functions
Benito
Legarda
Gregorio
Araneta
In the
judiciary, the
Filipino elite was given the substantial role
Appointed Cayetano Arellano as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
1. Fear of losing
the security of
their loses
2. Basic orientation of the elite
understanding of the American benevolent policy
In Tribal Communities
Americans were successful in coopting the ruling elite at the start of American rule
American teachers and missionaries opened the path to an understanding of American benevolent policy
-Through schools
-Religious Missions
-Medical Work
IN MINDANAO
-promotion of the need for social services
• Building of schools
• Campaign against insanitary living conditions and diseases
• Education of children

Critical role of American teachers
''The school system depends for its success entirely upon the American teachers.....''
- BRIG. GEN. JOHN J. PERSHING
Dr. Najeeb M. Saleeby
• One of the most effective instruments of American educational policies
• School Superintendent for the District of Mindanao and Jolo
• Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes led to American educational objectives
in Moro Province.

-52 elementary schools of 2, 114 pupils, 240 of whom were Muslims
-handled by 15 American teachers, 50 Christians and 9 Muslims
-Retired on June 30, 1906 and became the new Secretary of the Moro Province under Gov. Tasker H. Bliss
1. Charles R. Cameron- Superintendent

2. Private Albert L. Burleigh- taught Tausug
children but was killed by Moros

3. George Kindy- agricultural inclination
In the Cordilleras
American pursuit of Aguinaldo's 200
retreating forces (''retreating column'')
Traditionally hostile Ifugao country
(headhunting activities)
Americans impressed
the Ifugaos:
>demonstration of people power
>practice of avoiding outright
confiscation of food
>payment of Ifugao food items
>assistance in rendering
speedy justice
By 1902
preparation for the American colonial govt and study of the area through Dr. David P. Barrows
By 1903
acceptance of American rule by Dominga Atandada of Dullayan and Rafael Baluyunoan
-92 chiefs and headmen of Ifugao country organized a conference for a govt in the Ifugao area (Nagaracan Ifugaos bocycotted the meeting)
Former military men who helped in the pacification of the area and the preparation of the people for the American govt:
1. Samuel Kane
2. Al Hora
3. Capt. Lewis Patstone
4. Lt. Levi Case
By 1906
-entry of Lt. Jeff D. Gallman

-beginning of an era of peace
among the Ifugaos and
American rule
TREATY TRAPS
Muslim Leadership
accepted SULU
OPPOSED
Bates Treaty
-Sultan Jamalul Kiram & Gen. John C. Bates (August 20, 1899)
-political compromise
-extent of involvement in American peace initiative
-significant accomplishment of American diplomacy
BATES TREATY
Tausug Version
English Version
=/=
political co-existence (mutual respect
for personal property and other rights)
-establishment of American rule in Sulu
-acceptance of American sovereignty
unilateral
abrogation
-by the colonial govt through
Gov. Gen. William Howard Taft &
Moro Province Gov. Leonard Wood,
March 1904
-surprise and irritation of the Sultan
and Datus
-dishonor and shame on Sulu Leadership
belief in the Sultan's involvement
in the eruption of uprising's
-particularly in the bloody battle
of BUD BAGSAK in 1913 (Hassan Revolt)
The

Carpenter-Kiram
Agreement,
1915
-March 22, 1915
-Sultan as a
''spiritual leader''
''NOTE'' preliminary to the main part of the agreement:
• Independent sovereignty
• Partial exercise of sovereignty by Spain
• Partial but de facto temporal sovereignty of US (Bates Treaty) in Article IX

Stipulations
-TOTAL SOVEREIGNTY of US over all
the Sultanate
-except in matters of religion
>must not violate the the basic principles
of the laws of the US
Increase in Filipino Participation
Political Change in the United States
1912, Woodrow Wilson
new political orientation
Republican
Rule
Democratic Rule
• Conservatism of American policies
• Acquisition and maintenance of colonies

Expansionist
enertia
-from vigorous, westward expansion
of American colonists
-need for raw materials and markets
-influence of the ''Great Commission''
EFFECTS ON COLONY
Democratic Party
Administration
• Populist interests
• Modification of control over colonies

The
Republication
Defeat
(1912)

First Democratic
Gov. General, 1913:
Francis Burton Harrison
HARRISON RULE
Realistic Implementation
of American Policies
Actual grant of substantial participation in the govt of the Filipinos
• Executive branch:
-Philippine Commission in 1913
-Council of State
-Board of Control in 1918
• Civil Service- 70%
Harrison Rule
''Rapid Filipinization''
in the Legislative Branch
Jones Law
bicameral justice:
• Senate
• House of Representatives

Filipino Participation in the Judiciary
lower courts:
both American and
Filipino judges
Cayetano Arellano (Chief Justice, 1901)
LIMITS TO FILIPINIZATION
Advantages of the elite from the compromise
of the Colonial Government
Restraints of Elitism
Limited the participation to the elite
• Significant share of power, wealth & status in the islands
• Right to a new access to external power

Exemption of the highest
executive post
• Secretary of Public Instruction
• National Treasury
• Bureau of Customs
• Bureau of Internal Revenue
• Local treasuries

FILIPINIZATION:
an aid to colonial compromise
ECONOMIC LIMITATION
Filipino Economic relations with the US (HARRISON ERA)
Economic Policy of the US:
PARIS TREATY (1898)
''FREE TRADE''
Payne-Aldrich
Tariff Act of 1909
''FREE TRADE''
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act (1909)
FILIPINO
INTERESTS
=/
AMERICAN
INTERESTS
• Quota system

• Limitation: volume & kind of export

• Absolutely free

• no similar restriction

Sereno E. Payne
Nelson W. Aldrich
UNDERWOOD-SIMMONS TARIFF ACT
1913, abolished the quotas on Philippine export
TYDINGS-McDUFFIE LAW
1934, quotas were reimposed
-Strengthened the Filipino and American economic interests
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF FILIPINIZATION
Tradition vs Modernism
American
Liberal
System
Filipino traditional
ways
The new system:
Democratic
''Democracy
Filipino
style''
American democratic structure in the Philpines
''Little
brown
Americans''
Three branches of the government
-Role as co-equal units of govt
-No longer ''collaborators'' but ''partners''
Social System
-attention to the elite
-encouragement to a new middle class
of professionals
Socio-economic benefits to masses
-education
-health and sanitation
-public works & transportation
-employment opportunities
-markets for agricultural products
Dynamic Cultural Process
Introduction and Propagation
of American activities
• Ball games
• Restaurants & Eateries
• Movies
• Sports
• Arts

DEMOCRACY FILIPINO STYLE
Continuity of Filipino
values in new democracy
not even the elite
abandoned their traditional
values
The Filipinos saw
no contradiction between the
new democratic institutions
and traditional practices
Passion
for the
Rule of Law
VS
• Ritual kinship
• Pakikisama
• Utang na loob

Harrison's Term
Criticisms:
• Filipino incompetence in the bureaucracy
• Graft and Corruption
• Unpreparedness of the Filipinos for independence

Demonstrated of what TRUST
could do to Fil-AM relations
THE END :)
Full transcript