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Learning Process Presentation

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Deanne Thomas

on 13 July 2014

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Transcript of Learning Process Presentation

High school teacher
Grenada
July 13, 2014

Deanne Francis-Thomas
Different Topics
Learner-centered principles of learning

Historical perspectives

Current theories

Brain anatomy and brain-based approaches to learning

Inclusion of instructional technology in the learning process


The Learning Process
Learner-Centered Principles of Learning
Historical perspective on how learning occurs
Behaviorism:
Historical perspective on how learning occur
Social Cognition:
Lev Vygotsky
Shifts the emphasis from what teachers do to what the students do in order to learn.
Historical perspective on how learning occurs
Developmental Stages and
Cognitive Structures
Contemporary views and learning styles
Contemporary views and learning styles
Contemporary views and learning styles
Brain based approaches to learning
Walden University
EDUC 6651 - Teacher Leadership in the Classroom: Increasing Learning and Achievement

Are you a teacher, an administrator,
a student
or parent,
or just someone with an interest in learning?
You are invited to view this presentation on

The Learning Process
Purpose: To summarize key ideas about the learning process and how it impacts students' learning
What is learning
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skills. It involves change in behavior and attitude.


chalk and talk
lecture
note taking
memorizing information
neat rows
students working quietly
What comes to mind at the thought of learning?
Focuses on how students learn
Students are responsible for their learning
Teachers are facilitators
Guidelines about learners and the nature of learning
Knowledge
base
Strategic
processing
Motivation
and
affect
Developmental
and
individual
differences
Assessment
Situation
and
context
Before the industrial revolution , people learned by observing and listening to others.
Later, they learned through apprenticeship
An education system that focuses first on teaching then learning is flawed

Berry Beers, author of Learning Driven Schools.
Increase
desirable
behavior
Positive
reinforcement
"rewards"
Negative
reinforcement
"punishment"
Decrease undesirable
behavior
Focuses on
the importance of
reinforcing behaviors
to control learning
Students
can
work on their own
Zone of Proximal Development
Learns through scaffolding

Out of students reach
at present
Lev Voygotsky believed that learning occurs within the "Zone of Proximal Development" (Beers, 2006
)
Social interactions is fundamental in cognitive development
scaffolding: The assistance that students need to help them gain new knowledge and skills
As students develop support is gradually removed.
Social learning Theory/
Observation Learning
Conditions must be present
Attention: Learner must pay attention

Retention: Learner must remember what happened.

Motor reproduction: learner must be physically and intellectually capable of replicating the behavior.

Motivation:learner must want to replicate the behavior
Albert Bandura
Jean Piaget
Cognitivism involves how we think and gain knowledge
Stages of cognitive Development
Sensorimotor: 0 - 2 years


Preoperational: 2 to 7 years


Concrete Operational: 7 to 12 years


Formal Operational: 12 to 15 years

Visual Learner:
Learns best by seeing
Auditory Learner:
Learns best by hearing
Tactile and Kinesthetic Learner:
Learns best by doing
Current trends also suggest that people use different approaches to fit their leaning style.
Do you like seeing pictures, charts, diagrams?

Do you prefer being spoken or read to?

Do you prefer touching objects and moving around.
How do you learn best?
Barry Beers explained two categories of learning styles, perceivers and processors
Perceivers
processors
Perceivers are either concrete or abstract. Concrete perceivers learn from hand-on experiences while abstract learners learn from indirect experiences
(Beers, 2006)
Students who use information as soon as they experience it are active processors. Those who think about what they have learned then use it accordingly are reflective processors
(Beers, 2006).
Howard Gardner, in his theory of multiple intelligence suggests that there are eight intelligences that affect how we learn.
Traditionally, teachers have placed much emphasis on verbal and mathematical intelligences.
It is imperative that classroom instructions and assessments reflect all eight intelligences.
Verbal-Linguistic:
ability to use language
Logical-Mathematical:
Visual-Spatial:
Body-Kinesthetic:
Musical-Rhythmic:
Interpersonal:
Intrapersonal:
ability to discern logical or numerical patterns
ability to use pictures and images to retain information
ability to control body movement and handle objects skillfully
sensitive to tones and rhythms
ability to respond appropriately to others
ability to self-reflect and be in tune with inner feelings.
ability to recognize and categorize living things.
Naturalistic:
(Beers, 2006)
Brain-Based Approaches to Learning
According to Dr. Pat Wolfe, "All learning takes place in the brain."
(Laureate Education,n.d.b).
Let us take a look at the anatomy of the brain.
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Located in the back portion of the brain
Controls vision
Think of the word optical. this will help you remember that this part of the brain controls vision

Located to the side, right next to the temple
Controls hearing
Think of your temples which are close to your ears.
Located to the front
Responsible for higher level thinking and making association
Also associated with memory
Located in the middle section of the brain
Processes sensory information
B. F. Skinner
Pavlov's famous experiment of dogs being conditioned to salivate upon simply hearing a bell is associated with behaviorism.
Who is being conditioned in this picture, Pavlov or the dog?
Can all learning be credited to the promise of a reward or punishment?
https://www.google.com/search?q=Pavlov+famous+experiment&espv=2&source
Brain-Based Approaches to Learning
One of the criticisms levied against traditional theories of learning is that they discount the activities of the brain.
Dr. Pat Wolfe explained four finding from brain research.
The brain is sculpted through experience
The brain seeks meaningful patterns
Emotion is a catalyst of learning
There are two distinct types of memory, procedural and declarative
Teachers must provide students with opportunities that will positively shape their minds.
If information is not meaningful to students it will not be stored in the brain. Teachers must help create meaningful patterns by hooking new information to prior knowledge and providing hands-on experiences.
Emotions can impede or enhance learning. Teachers must, therefore, ensure that the classroom environment is conducive to the emotional wellness of students.
Procedural memory is unconscious while declarative is conscious. Since we want students to remember concepts and episodes, and the brain has the ability to forget, we must use strategies such as peer-teaching, problem-based learning, simulations and hands-on activities that will help them store and retrieve information.

Inclusion of Instructional
Technology in the Learning Process
Any current presentation on the learning process will be incomplete without a discussion on the use of technology.
Advantages
In sync with students interest

Increases their motivation

Greater access to information

Appeals to multiple senses

Interactive

Greater levels of engagement

Classroom examples
Interactive graphic organizers for generating and organizing ideas.

Wikis for collaborating and doing group projects.

Memiary accounts for logging reflections.

Blogging for publishing work and inviting feedback.


Dr. Patricia Alexander
(Laureate Education, n.d.a)
https://www.google.com/search?q=traditional+classroom&espv=2&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ
https://www.google.com/search?q=apprenticeship&tbm=isch&ei
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yourbrainattack.com%2Fbrain-functions.htm&h
Conclusion
Some of the practices that are at work in our classrooms are outmoded and ineffective. Dr. Barry Beers encourages teachers to move away from the teacher-centered strategies characterized by memorization and regurgitation to student-centered approaches.

Dr. Pat Wolfe warns that coverage of information is the greatest enemy of comprehension.



Successful learning involves more than taking in facts, it includes shaping and developing the brain through engaging activities that appeal to varying learning styles and intelligences.

I am excited about implementing that shift.
How about you?
Thank you!
References
Beers, B. (2006).
Learning driven schools: A practical guide for teachers and
principals.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision of Curriculum and Development.
Jensen, E. (2005). Chapter 1: Meet your amazing brain. In T
eaching with the
brain in mind
(2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104013/chapters/Meet-Your-Amazing-Brain.aspx
Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.a).
Learner-centered principles
[Video file].
Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.a).
Understanding the brain
[Video file].
Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.b).
Brain research and learning
[Video file].
Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Lui, A. (2012). Teaching in the Zone: An introduction to working within the Zone of
Proximal Development (ZPD) to drive effective early childhood instruction. Retrieved from http://www.childrensprogress.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/free-white-paper-vygotsky-zone-of-proximal-development-zpd-early-childhood.pdf

As long as we are in the business of learning, the brain is important (Jensen, 2005).
(Laureate Education, n.d.)
(Beer, 2006)
(Beers, 2006)
(Lui, 2012)
(Laureate Education, n.d.b)
Full transcript