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Russian Revolution, Fascism, and WWII
Transcript of Russian Revolution, Fascism, and WWII
1. Alexander I,
-Congress of Vienna
2. Decembrist Revolt
-1825 Junior officers for
political liberalism, free serfs,
create constitutional monarchy, and
-crushed by Nicholas I
3. Crimean War
-Russia expanding South
-Issue with Black Sea
-Later issues with Imperialism in Persia
-Loss to Ottomans, French, British Piedmont-Sardinia
-Revealed to Russia how far behind they were
4. Czar Alexander II
-"Sink or Swim", reform or revolution
-Freed Serfs, 1861; collective ownership of land, tax and payment issue to nobles
-Reforms; Zemstov-local assembly
-Industrializes and RR
-Assassinated, for being too slow with reforms by Anarchists
5. Alexander III
-Pograms against revolutionaries
-Reactionary, not the most capable
-Strong wife, Alexandra (granddaughter of Queen Victoria)
A) Russo-Japanese war of 1904/5, defeat in Manchuria and at Sea
-results are strikes, peasant revolts for land, nationality revolts for autonomy, food shortage
B) 1/1905 Bloody Sunday at Winter Palace
-peaceful demonstration led by Father Gapon, fired up
-many men, women, and children killed
-Tsar not seen as a "father figure" (flight of Varennes)
C) Duma, due to demands of liberal bourgeoisie
-October manifest (similar to demands of 1826)
-Constitution and two Dumas dismissed until a docile chosen one picked
-Tsar has an absolute veto
-Peter Stolypin, reform and breakdown of collective village ownership
D) Middle Class disillusioned with Duma
E) Russia modernizing by 1914.
-Soviets also started in 1905, workers, students, soldiers councils (hotbed of revolution)
-1903, split between Menchevik and Bolshevik
WWI for Russia
-Initially supported in a partiotic fashion
-Different expectations; land, increase in wages, autonomy for ethnic groups
A) 1915 "Progressive Bloc", conservatives and moderate socialists togther call for Duma to take prime position, while Russia took 1.5-2 million casualties (more than any other country)
B) Nicholas denied and went to the front
-Alexandra left in charge of Petrograd, she was quite reactionary
C) March Revolution 1917, 3/8
-Women demanded bread= riots = spread to factories
-Troops orderd to suppress (Tsar), they joined the crowd
-Duma ordered Nicholas to resign, which he did
D) Provisional Governemnt of the Duma
-to wrote a constitution
-Liberals, moderates, socialists, mensheviks
-classical liberalism, individual rights, equality under the law
-unions could organize or strike
-universal male suffrage
E) Alexandr Kerensky
*Did not confiscate aristocratic land for the peasants
*Lost peasant backing
*Stayed in WWI, needed peasants to fight and not go to land and farm
Duma forced to share power with the Petrograd Soviet
-Councils of workers, students, and soldiers
-Order #1 (Lenin)
** authority in army given to soldiers! End of discipline
* Peasants vote with their feet
The Bolshevik Revolution
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
"The Russian revolution of 1917 was the result of several major problems of both a social and economic nature."
Assess the validity of the above statement and explain whether or not the Revolution could have been avoided.
Between the Wars
A) Vladimir Lenin- the individual in history, a field of study in history
a. Background; Father a teacher and well educated, possible Jewish background on his father’s side, brother executed for radicalism by Alexander III (involved in a plot to assassinate). Lenin was exiled to Siberia.
b. Lenin spends up to 17 years in exile inside and outside Russia, in Switzerland prior to 1917
c. Philosophy (pragmatic)
Violent revolution- only way to destroy evils of capitalism (Marxist)
Took ideas from Marx/Engels and the “Communist Manifesto”
Rejected revisionism of Bernstein, Germans, etc.
d. Differed from Marx
Possible for backwards Russia to have a revolution, IR not necessary.
Peasants, still very poor, would embrace change/revolution and join up with factory workers
Need for a highly trained elite “vanguard”, difference from Mensheviks and Marx
e. Slogans- “Peace, Bread, and Land”, and “All Power to the Soviets”
f. Germany gave Lenin safe passage from Switzerland to Finland Station in Petrograd.
i. Why? Lenin wanted to end the fighting. Germany like that. Internal turmoil no matter what.
ii. Upon arrival, true revolutionary spirit comes out and begins speeches, refused to work with Provisional Government/Kerensky
iii. Leon Trotsky key to the revolution and Soviet
1. 100 % for Lenin, was an early Menshevik
2. Bolsheviks had a slight majority in the Petrograd Soviet
3. Trotsky got the Soviet to form military (he headed the committee)
4. He then takes control of the Soviet and the Provisional Gov.; controlled post office, railroad, telegraph, and eventual the winter palace- Aurora.
Russian Civil war
Civil War breaks out as soon as the revolution is over; Reds Vs Whites
“The miracle wasn’t that Lenin took power during the Nov. revolution , but … that he was able to stay in power afterwards” Harenberg. 1993
Lenin’s three early moves (brilliant with hindsight)
Did give land to peasants (from aristocratic estates), was happening anyway in 1917 as WWI went badly in Russia (Order # 1)
Ok’s factory worker committees to control local factories
Peace- ends WWI
Treaty of Brest Litovsk- 1/3 of Russia to Germany
One step backward (lose land), two steps forward-Stalin got land back some
d.Reds/ Lenin and Trotsky/Bolsheviks/Communists Won the Civil War
Whites- to conservative , didn’t unite the masses
Red Army, under Trotsky- faired much better, used the draft, czar’s officers, and tough discipline
Reds used Total War, War Communism; rationing and industry nationalized
Checka used- cruel, ex. Puppet show making fun of Lenin- they were shot
Foreign Intervention- helped Reds unite Russia behind them
i. N.E.P. (Lenin’s New Economic Policy)- adopts some capitalism
ii. One step back, for two steps forward
iii. To get economy going, surplus farm goods could be sold, small manufacturing allowed, free enterprise. Economy does better for 12 years after Lenin’s death
iv. Pragmatism, He saved communism, rapid recovery, eased/ relaxed censorship and repression
v. He was concerned about Stalin
Jospeh Stalin (Totalitarianism to the left)
A) 1924, Lenin died- power struggle results with Stalin in power; Lenin wanted Trotsky
B) Trotsky vs Stalin- differences
Trotsky- more of a Marxist, belief in world wide communist revolution (export)
Stalin- solidify revolution in Russia first (Socialism in One Country)
C) By 1927, Stalin had control
D) Economy- “Five Year Plans”- wanted 250% Increase in heavy industry, 150% in Agr.
Heavy Industry- got 500% by ’37, moved peasants into cities: but no consumer goods, so standard of living goes down
Agriculture- forced collectivization- 2nd Serfdom
End of individual farms, big state owned ones instead
Deaths- 10 million or more (Ukraine)
Stalin moved industry east of the Urals
Political/military “purges” of the 30’s
Trials and executions of communist party members + generals who were found “unfaithful”
Stalin’s wife’s suicide- when he was brutally mean to her when she voiced her opposing opinion
Trotsky- tried in absentia and later assassinated in Mexico
d. Religion- who became God?- Stalin (Lenin- “religion is the opiate of the people”)
e. Art/Music- art as propaganda (Lenin let artists create), shock brigade, Rachmaninoff banned
f. Stalin-Hitler “Non-Aggression Pact”- 1939 (Both attack and divide Poland)
i. Caught the free world by surprise
ii. West to blame (yes) Stalin asked for alliance w/ Fr. And Br. Who said no.
Between WWI and WWII (1920’s to 30’s- Age of Anxiety)
A) Before 1914, Optimism:
a. Progress, increase in education, increase in standard of living, opportunity for lower classes to move up, democracy, social security, government responding to problems
c. Rights of individuals
d. Scientific revolution; Newton, logical universe, laws of science/nature, technological benefits, therefore laws of human behavior. Then QED and Einstein.
B) Contrast with Post WWI + Russian Revolution
Age of Anxiety
a. Pessimism- doubt in philosophy, writers (Remarque, Hemmingway), science
b. Fear of the future- people didn’t know what to think, made worse by events in the 20’s and 30’s
i. Anxiety in Philosophy (distrust of democracy, social equality, reason)
Nietzsche (1844-1900) – German
a. Importance of emotions and passion, reason was overemphasized, importance of a few ‘superior’ individuals, ubermensch, “masses are asses” and must be led. Will to Power
2. Lenin- elite to lead a revolution
3. Sorel (French)- use of general strike to collapse capitalism, “everyone strikes in sympathy”, need for a revolutionary elite , *anti-reason
4. Existentialism (Sartre, Camus, both French, but started in Germany)
a. Relativity of values to situation, changes for the individual, don’t judge the others, or worry about them. No belief in God, reason, progress.
5. Anxiety and physics: Curie, Einstein, Fermi, Bohr, etc. E=MC2
6. Psychology- Freud
7. Modern Art + Music; Anxiety and irrational
Mussolini (Italy 1922-1944)
A) King Victor Emmanuel III- (grandson of Cavour’s king) gave Mussolini dictatorial power after Mussolini’s famous “March on Rome” 10/29. Victor stays on as figurehead monarch.
B) His Fascism (Totalitarianism)
a. Parliament gov. rejected(anti-democratic)
b. No freedom of press
c. Election fraud
d. Arrested opponents (only 23 killed), Hitler and Stalin killed millions
e. Support for gov. from the Catholic Church, with support to Pope Pius
f. Industry- did not exert total influence, mutual agreements
g. Didn’t go after Jews until the end (anti-semitism)
C) Imperialistic (like Japan/Germany)- league = appeasement, talk compromise but never follow through or back it up
a. Ethiopia ’35, weakest nation imaginable and Albania in 1936, poorest in Europe
WWII- Axis formed in 1936 (Germany, Italy, and Japan)
the Munich Conference
DAP to NSDAP
Racism and Anti-Semitism
Disaster a boon
Ein Reich, Ein Volk, Ein Fuhrer
Anti-Wiemar, democracy, Bolshevism, Judaism, racial impurity, Treaty of Versailles, disunity, territorial disintergration.
Poland, Blitzkrieg, Sitzkrieg,
Finland, Baltics, Eastern Poland
Belgium, Dunkirk, France
Battle of Britain
North Africa, Afrika Korp, Erwin Rommel
Moscow, Lenningrad, Stalingrad, Kursk
USA, Pearl Harbor
Vichy, El Alamein,
Had Final Solution,
Kasserine, Sicily, Kesselring and Monte Casino
One blood demands one Reich. Never will the German
nation have the moral right to enter into colonial politics until, as least, it includes its own sons within a single state...
Oppressed territories are led back to the bosom of a common Reich, not by flaming protests, but by a mighty sword.
Adolf Hitler from Mein Kampf
Il Duce mit Den Fuhrer
Believe, Obey, Fight
Pessimism: Stability/Security = Illusion
Science/Technology = power beyond control
Reason NOT enough to banish darkness/ignorance/injustice DOES NOT = Progress
+ Hope for League of Nations UNTIL Depression and Totalitarianism
* Intellectuals felt they lived in a "Broken World"
"All the great worlds, " wrote D.H. Lawrence, "were cancelled out for that generation."
Freud: War, stripped cultural restraints
'Thoughts for the Time on War and Death" 1915
Paul Valery: Civilization was, "...as fragile as life."
Albert Schweitzer: 'We are living today under the sign of the collapse of civilization."
Arnold Toynbee: "... men and women all over the world...discussing the possibility the Western system of society might break down and sease to work."
Karl Jaspers: "... awareness of imminent ruin tantamount to the dread of the approaching end of all that makes life worthwhile."
Erich Marie Remarque: from All Quiet on the Western Front, "... Through the years our business has been killing... Our knowledge of life is limited to death. What will happen afterwards?"
William Yeats, poem- "The Second Coming"-
Mere Anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and
T.S. Eliot's 'The Waste Land", 1922
-an image of collapsing European civilization
(Fury Road- Road Warrior?)
"...modern man has suffered an almost f