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Personality

Human Resources
by

Amir Ghods

on 2 February 2014

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Transcript of Personality

PERSONALITY
the Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask work by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities.
PERSONA LITY
While our informal assessments of personality tend to focus more on individuals, personality psychologists instead use conceptions of personality that can apply to everyone.
Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us.
DEFINITION
Personality refers to individuals' characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms -- hidden or not -- behind those patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to explain whole persons."
(Funder, D. C., 1997)
"Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior."
(Feist and Feist, 2009)
that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique.

Consistency - There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations.

Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.

It impacts behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.

Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.
COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY
MODELS
non-biologically based personality models
biologically based personality models
hexaco
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Eysenck's Three Factor Model of Personality
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST)
Cloninger Model of Personality
big five
big five model
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
1
2
3
4
5
Carl Gustav Jung
MBTI
Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers
Dichotomies
Extraversion (E) – (I) Introversion

Sensing (S) – (N) Intuition

Thinking (T) – (F) Feeling

Judging (J) – (P) Perception
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses
perceiving function
tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical
decision function
situation
matching a given set of rules
INTP
Charles Darwin
1%
Albert Einstein
thoughtful
analytical
tend to spend long periods of time on their own .
working through problems and forming solutions.
curious about systems and how things work .
Consequently, they are frequently found in careers such as science, philosophy, law, psychology, and architecture.
They generally balk at attempts by others to convince them to change.
HEXACO model of personality
Honesty-Humility (H)
Emotionality (E)
Extraversion (X)
Agreeableness (A)
Conscientiousness (C)
Openness to Experience (O)
Biological basis of personality
Extraversion/Introversion
Eysenck's three factor model of personality
Hans Eysenck
Neuroticism/Stability

Stable extraverts
(sanguine qualities such as outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, lively, carefree, leadership)

Unstable extraverts
(choleric qualities such as touchy, restless, excitable, changeable, impulsive, irresponsible)

Stable introverts
(phlegmatic qualities such as calm, even-tempered, reliable, controlled, peaceful, thoughtful, careful, passive)

Unstable introverts
(melancholic qualities such as quiet, reserved, pessimistic, sober, rigid, anxious, moody)

cortical arousal
16%
16%
68%
VERY LOW
VERY HIGH
optimal level of performance
low activation thresholds
high activation thresholds
inconsideration, recklessness, anger and impulsiveness , interpersonal hostility .
Psychoticism
testosterone
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST)
the relationship between personality and sensitivity to reinforcement (i.e. reward and punishment).
Behavioral Activation System (BAS)
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
Fight/Flight System (FFS)
BRAIN SYSTEMS
REWARD
PUNISHMENT
THREAT
BAS
BIS
High BAS is generally associated with high extraversion, low neuroticism, and trait impulsivity.
high BAS is associated with higher positive affect in response to reward
high BIS is associated with low extraversion, high neuroticism, and trait anxiety.
high BIS is associated with higher negative affect in response to punishment.
Cloninger Model of Personality
Claude Robert Cloninger
He focused on the structure of learning abilities within the person.

Harm Avoidance (anxious, pessimistic vs. outgoing, optimistic)

Novelty Seeking (impulsive, quick-tempered vs. rigid, slow-tempered)

Reward Dependence (warm, approval-seeking vs. cold, aloof)

Reward dependence is characterized as a tendency to respond markedly to signals of reward, particularly to verbal signals of social approval, social support, and sentiment, and learning to maintain and pursue behaviors which were previously associated with such rewards.
novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait associated with exploratory activity in response to novel stimulation and quick loss of temper and avoidance of frustration.
harm avoidance (HA) is a personality trait characterized by excessive worrying; pessimism; shyness; and being fearful, doubtful, and easily fatigued.
Personality Inventory
(personality test)
Revised NEO Personality Inventory,
or NEO PI-R
The Big 5 personality traits can be seen in chimpanzees.
240 items
60 items
Validity
Reliability
INTERNAL CONSISTENCY
FACETS
BETWEEN ITEMS
The current version of the test includes 93 forced-choice questions in the North American version, and 88 forced-choice questions in the European version. For each question, there are two different options that the test-taker must choose from.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
HEXACO Personality Inventory
FOUR FACETS
60 ITEMS
100 ITEMS
5 = strongly agree
4 = agree
3 = neutral (neither agree nor disagree)
2 = disagree
1 = strongly disagree

Eysenck Personality Inventory
Woody Allen
An unstable person is characterized by high degree of neuroticism. That a person is neurotic in Eysenck's sense do not mean that he actually has a neurosis. It just means that such persons are more likely to get one, because their innate alarm system is more sensitive and efficient than other people's.
Psychoticism as a Precondition for Creativity
vincent van Gogh
John Forbes Nash
Deep down in their minds they find cultural norms, authorities and other social contexts less important, and therefore they unconsciously will not let such considerations limit their search for solutions.
Eysenck wrote that creative intelligence fundamentally can be characterized as a search process in the brain, which aims to find not generic solutions - during this process different elements from memory are brought together to generate new solutions to problems.

Tridimensional Personality inventory
There are 100 true-false questions which form the basis for the computation of the traits.
TPQ
4-SUBSCALE
PERSONALITY AND JOB SATISFACTION
Models of job satisfaction
Affect theory
The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job.
the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.
Dispositional theory
It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job.

This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs.

Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
Equity Theory suggests that if an individual thinks there is an inequality between two social groups or individuals, the person is likely to be distressed because the ratio between the input and the output are not equal.

For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same or less work than the other, then the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace.
Equity theory
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
neuroticism
openness
employment environment
quality of the match
Job satisfaction
personality
_
+
+
+
+
for life success
Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job.
job satisfaction
the extent to which an individual is happy with their job and the role it plays in their life.
affective satisfaction is the sum total of pleasurable emotions and feelings associated with the job and its place in the individual’s life,

whereas cognitive satisfaction refers to rational satisfaction over particular facets of the job e.g. pay and day-to-day responsibilities.
There are two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees' feelings regarding their jobs.

The first, and most studied, is global job satisfaction, which refers to employees' overall feelings about their jobs (e.g., "Overall, I love my job.") (Mueller & Kim, 2008).

The second is job facet satisfaction, which refers to feelings about specific job aspects, such as salary, benefits, and the quality of relationships with one's co-workers (e.g., "Overall, I love my job, but my schedule is difficult to manage.") (Mueller & Kim, 2008).
affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction
Thanks
16
Types
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