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Yianni D

on 17 June 2010

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Transcript of Antarctica

Antarctica Animals Climate Future Albatrosses Whales Penguins Sea Birds Seals Land Food Chain Winter What is Antarctica's climate like? If it changed, how would it affect the life there? Will Antarctica melt in the future because of global warming? How do all of the animals survive there in winter and what is the weather like in winter there? What role does each animal have in keeping the food chain balanced? Animals Winter Food Chain Land Climate Future Whales Penguins Albatrosses Seals Sea Birds When the krill aren't on the surface, the baleen whales will dive down and blow bubbles around the krill, trapping them and then eating them. The Albatross has a wing span of over 3 metres! They sometimes travel hundreds of miles just to get food for their chicks! Sea birds eat krill as well. The whales make it easier for them to catch the krill by making the krill go to the surface. Sea birds are scavengers as well. They will eat any meat they come by because the krill come in patches. Leopard seals eat penguins while other species of seals eat fish and other small sea creatures. The leopard seal is not only the hunter, but it is also hunted by the killer whale. Penguins eat fish and krill. The parents will go fishing in the summer and bring back food for their chicks. Because there are so many penguin chicks in a colony, the parents must recognise their chick by its voice. Bibliography The climate in Antarctica is very cold, of course, it is the coldest place in the world because the whole continent is covered in ice and snow. The actual land is under the ice. Antarctica Mountains, [Online image], Available from:
Antarctica_sea_ice_Coronation_island2.jpg [Accessed 15/4/2010] In Antarctica, the climate must be a certain temperature, because if the climate gets too hot, the ice will melt, and the fresh water (the ice) will mix with the salt water, and all of the phytoplankton in the southern ocean will die because there will not be enough salt in the water. That would cause everything to die because the krill would not be able to eat anything. The future of Antarctica depends completely upon what we (humans) choose to do, if we keep on polluting and the climate heats up, Antarctica and life in the Southen Ocean will perish. By Yianni Cassimatis What is the land like? The land mass in Antarctica is covered in ice and snow. The mountains are some of the only areas of solid land there. Antarctica's food chain needs to be perfectly balanced. Because if there are too many penguins, for example, there will not be enough krill for every species, so some animals will become extinct, and if they become extinct, the animals that eat them will become extinct as well. Treaty Treaty The Antarctic Treaty is a guideline of what you can and can't do there. Krill Krill (also known as zooplankton) are tiny prawn-like sea creatures that are about half a centimetre long. They feed on phytoplankton. Without krill, all creatures in the Southern Ocean would cease to exist. There are many different types of penguins, such as Emperor penguins, King penguins, Adélie penguins, and Macaroni penguins. Killer Whales The killer whale's favourite prey is seals. There is no animal in the Southern Ocean that hunts the killer whale. In other words, it is top of the food chain. Ocean The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is of course, made of salt water, and is rich in life. Ice In Winter, Antarctica almost doubles in size. This occurs because the Southern Ocean around it freezes. The ice in Antarctica is fresh water. Antarctica has the largest supply of fresh water in the world. Rock The rocks in Antarctica are mostly from the mountain peaks coming out of the ice. That gives you an idea of how deep the ice is.
Every year, people will gather and make a treaty. The treaty is important, because no one actually owns Antarctica. The treaty is the set of rules/guidelines so that people know what they can and can't do there. Unfortunately, not everyone cares about the treaty. Some people just think of it as a piece of paper. So there are people who do as they please. Those people include whalers, and fishermen who take krill and other fish. This has a severe impact on the food chain. Also, some countries have tried to claim Antarctica. For example, Chile has tried to claim Antarctica by trying to get women to give birth to babies there. However, this obviously did not work because it was far too cold there. Antarctica also depends upon whether we interfere with the food chain, because if we take out one thing in the food chain, it will all fall apart. As I said before, the food chain cannot be interfered with, if we interfere with it, we will kill all life in the Southen Ocean. Save our Whales, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10 Albatross, [Online image], Available from:
< http://curlewmedia.com/images/Royal_Albatross.jpg >
[Accessed 20/4/10 Seabirds, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10] Leopard Seal, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10] The Adélie Penguin, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10] Antarctic Krill, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10] Leopard seals are the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic. The largest is the elephant seal. Orca (Killer whale), [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/4/10] Survival All of the different animals that live in Antarctica have different strategies for surviving. Whales, for example, head north in winter where the waters are much warmer. Weather Primary producers The primary producers in the Southern Ocean are the phytoplankton. Their job is basically to breed and be eaten by krill (Zooplankton). Phytoplankton are so small that they cannot be seen with a naked eye. Primary Consumers Zooplankton (commonly known as krill) are the creatures that eat phytoplankton and are the main food source in the Southern Ocean. Secondary Consumers Whales, Adélie penguins, crabeater seals, fish, and many other creatures in the Southern Ocean feed on krill (zooplankton). The secondary consumers have the roles of stopping the krill from overpopulating, and providing food for the predators and top predators. Top Predators The top predator of the Southern Ocean is the killer whale. The top predator's job is to make sure that there aren't too many of one species. This job is important because if there are too many of one species, then there will not be enough food to go around for the other species. Predators Some of the predators of the Southern Ocean include leopard seals, and other types of seals that eat fish. Another predator of the Southern Ocean is the sperm whale. The sperm whale is a toothed whale and it feeds on fish and squid. The killer whale is a part of the dolphin family and is found in oceans all over the world. The Antarctic Food Web, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 21/4/10] Land Animals The future of the animals in Antarctica depends completely upon the food chain. If we interfere with it and it becomes unbalanced, the animals will perish. The future of the land also depends upon what we choose to do. If we keep on being careless and polluting, the ice there will melt in the future. There are two different types of whales, toothed whales (sperm whales), and baleen whales. Toothed whales eat fish and squid while baleen whales eat krill. Sperm whales can dive hundreds of metres while searching for fish and squid. Antarctica, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 21/4/10] The Antarctic Treaty, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 21/4/10] Antarctic Sea Level, [Online image], Available from:
Accessed 21/4/10] In winter, Antarctica has very short days because of the Earth's position. The coldest temperature recorded there in winter was -89.2 degrees celsius! Albatrosses eat fish and krill. The great albatrosses are the biggest sea birds in the world. The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Southern Ocean. When a leopard seal catches its prey, it will play a game of cat and mouse for up to twenty minutes. 3 metres Sperm Whale, [Online image], Available from:
[Accessed 23/4/10] The emperor penguin actually goes south in the winter! The females will give the eggs to the males to care for during winter. Then they will go fishing and then bring back food for their mates and their chicks. The weather in winter in Antarctica is extremely harsh. The only animal that doesn't retreat to the coast is the emperor penguin. Blizzards are common during winter in Antarctica. There are also the occasional white outs. A white out is when it is so bright outside that you can't see anything in front of you. Thanks for watching my prezi on Antarctica. Click on a subject if you would like to view it again. Warning: This is not to scale! The killer whale is also known as the orca. Sea Ice in Antarctic, [Online Image], Available from:
[Accessed 20/5/10] Summer Winter Adélie Penguin
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