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The Process of Learning

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Hollie Zammit

on 26 May 2015

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Transcript of The Process of Learning

Which are these 8 different intelligences that Gardner speaks about?
Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Dr. Howard Gardner





Verbal linguistic
Gardner’s theory goes beyond the ordinary method of measuring intelligence through IQ.

If teachers follow this theory, they can get a better idea of their students weaknesses and strengths in class.


This makes the educational system more challenging.

In fact our educational system is very biased because it only focuses on one, uniform type of testing.

Students are then categorised in only one of the two main categories : Intelligent / Ignorant in school.

“Documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform and understand in different ways” (1991).

According to Gardner, this theory:
It consists of 8 different learning methods.

He states that everyone learns in a different way
because every student is different.

This concludes that one method of learning in
schools cannot satisfy everyone.
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The environment which includes our life experiences
Studies have shown that neither identical twins have the same intelligence profile.

This is because intelligence depends on 2 things:
To conclude on this theory…
The Cognitive Development Theory
Jean Piaget
Individuals use schemas (mental concepts) to organise and interpret information, during the learning process.

Schemas could be used and adapted via two processes:

: by incorporating newly acquired knowledge into existing knowledge, and

: by changing the schema to new information.

The Process of Learning in Piaget’s View
Piaget’s fourth (and final) stage of cognitive development.

From 11 – 15 years of age all through adulthood.

Characterised by abstract, idealistic, and logical reasoning (hypothetical – deductive reasoning).

Hypothetical – deductive reasoning:The ability to develop different strategies to solve problems. Then being able to conclude which is the best strategy to adopt to solve the problem.

Formal Operational Stage
Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development.
From 2 to 7 Years of Age

With the help of symbolic thinking, children are able to express what they have learned in words, images and drawings.

Egocentrism and centration impair child’s thinking.

Preoperational Stage
During the process of learning, individuals continuously change their way of thinking – equilibration.

Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development.
From 7 to 11 years of age.

Logical reasoning possible (ONLY) with the aid of specific / concrete examples.

Involves operations – individual is able to ‘do’ a physical action done earlier, mentally.

Concrete Operational Stage
Cognitive development is:
‘’the process of acquiring intelligence and increasingly advanced thought
and problem solving  ability from infancy to adulthood.''

The process of learning is affected by cognitive development – children, adolescents and adults learn (acquire knowledge) differently, depending on which stage of cognitive development they would be in.

Cognitive Development
and Learning

Conservation skills develop – awareness that volume, area, length, mass, weight, number, and quantity of a(n) object / substance does not change when its appearance is altered.

Children are able to organise objects in different classes and subclasses.

Concrete Operational Stage (cont...)
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development.

From birth to 2 years of age.

Infants start to understand the world (learn) with physical actions (reflexive and instinctual at birth). This gives them sensory experiences.

Towards the end of this stage symbolic thinking begins.

Sensorimotor Stage
Formal Operational Stage
11 Years of Age Through Adulthood

Concrete Operational Stage
7 to 11 Years of Age

Preoperational Stage
2 Years to 7 Years of Age

Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 Years of Age

Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

The Process of Learning
The Participatory Aspect of Learning


When learning together, for the optimal outcome, learners must collaborate, share information and participate together or with the facility of resources.

In group work for example, we learn the two different outcomes
the group and
the group.

The outcome
the group is the theme they are assigned to work on.

The outcome
the group is the relationships, bonds and interpersonal skills between all group members.

Vygotsky’s Theory Cont..
By learning with others, this can help us individually to see things from new perspectives and also, form new ideas.

When learning with one another not only do we learn content and subject matter, but we also learn social skills and communication.

Vygotsky’s Theory Cont..

Vygotsky believed that learning occurs best within ‘Communities of Practice’.

These ‘Communities of Practice’ simply included people coming together in groups and sharing knowledge between one another.

Vygotsky’s Theory

Characteristics of a Tactile learner
Such a learner usually :

Can’t sit still for a long time
( is very fidgety during the lesson, especially at the end)
Might be considered as a
hyperactive student
by some
Does not have a very neat hand-writing
weaker at spelling

Enjoys and
learns from outings, experiments, arts and crafts, constructions and role-play
Learns by participating
rather than reading a book or watching a video.
Would rather stand, walk and/or use large motor muscles
than sit down to learn
Understands abstract information when it is combined with a
practical experience
Likes hands-on subjects
like Sciences, P.E, Art , Design and Technology and Graphical Communication

breaks during studying
to be beneficial
Concentrates more when
lying down
on a bed to study while s/he
fidgets, touches things and taps his/her fingers

Talks quickly
uses his/her hands to communicate
Touches friends
while communicating and as a gesture of friendship

Remembers what s/he or others did
in the past rather than what they said or how they looked

Tactile Learning Style
Sciences *
H.E & T.S **
P.E ◊
Maths ~
Graphical §
Languages ¤

Tactile learners (also known as kinesthetic learners) are learners who learn by feeling, doing, moving and by experiencing things physically.

They will probably remember :

a phone number through the way they move their fingers on a keypad/phone screen

a direction from the route they take themselves

a molecular structure by building a model

As teachers we must therefore include a variety of demonstrations (
, ◊,
) hands-on activities (
, ◊,
) , outings (
, ◊,
), role-play (
) experiments (
) construction games (
, ◊,
) and physical activity (
, ◊).

Tactile Learning
Characteristics of a Tactile learner cont..
Enjoys collecting items
good at sports
(including dance)
play a musical instrument
and enjoys studying or working with
background music
adventure books and movies
over other genres
exploring the environment
and so has a
good sense of direction
The Process of
A result of Experience:

If an experience challenges the students and it requires involvement with feelings, thoughts, practice and physical activity, it is more effective than a learning experience in which all the students have to do is commit something to memory.

Each student has specific goals, and students learn from any activity that tends to further their goals. So for learning to be effective, the teacher needs to find ways to relate learning with student's goals.

While learning the subject, students may be learning other things as well.
This type of learning is sometimes referred to as incidental, but it may have a great impact on the total development of the student.

Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime.
To learn is to acquire

It is one of the most outstanding human characteristics.

Learning may involve a change in attitude or behavior..
What is learning?
4 Characteristics of learning;
A Process
A result of experience

A process:

Students need to react and respond; outwardly or inwardly, emotionally and intellectually. Learning must be a two way process where students are engaged.

Created by:
Lyanne Agius, Clara Francesca Aquilina, Maria Buttigieg, Emma Caruana, Daniela Debono, Michela Debono, Janice Scerri, Francesca Scicluna and Hollie Zammit
Use colour to organize information.
Need quiet study time.
Often prefer to work alone rather than in groups.
May not understand verbal instructions.
Ask a lot of questions to seek clarification.
Need to be able to see the teacher.
Characteristics of Visual Learners cont.

Visual Learning Style

Visual (spatial) learners learn best by watching. They understand and remember things by sight, reading or seeing pictures. They can picture what they learn in their head and use methods that are primarily visual for learning.

Visual learning style includes the use of images, pictures, colours and maps to organise information and communication with others.

Visual Learning in the Classroom

can help students to visualise the links in the topics mentioned in class.

are an easy way of putting a few words which will be easier to remember.

help in learning the content quickly.

Avoid visual distractions.
Students can be distracted by looking at the windows, an open doorways, pictures and fancy clothing.
Look for opportunities
to break up lectures. Including an activity such as pair work.

Illustrating notes.
Images and graphs help visual learners.

Visual Learning in the Classroom

Remember what they read rather than what they hear.
Prefer reading a story rather than listening to it.
Learn from seeing things written out.
Use diagrams and charts to understand ideas and concepts.
Take notes during class or while listening to presentations.
Study by looking over things.
Are good at spelling.

Characteristics of Visual Learners

Visual Learning
Audio tapes
Books on CDs
Melodies and rhythms to reinforce information
Using auditory materials to teach lessons, including:
Change of tone and body language helps them maintain interest and attention.

They are often good at oral exams, effectively by listening to information delivered orally, in lectures, speeches and oral sessions.

Some claim that auditory learners find it impossible to comprehend anything without sound in the background such as music or different sounds.

Auditory Learning Style
Auditory learning is a learning style in which a person learns through listening. These people depend on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning.

They also use their listening and repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them using their own understanding.
Auditory Learning Style
Auditory Learning
Logical Mathematical


Visual spatial

Books Cited:
Santrock, J.W. (2007). Adolescence (12th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Pages 93 – 97.

Bezzina.C, Camilleri-Grima.A, Purchase.D and Sultana.R. (2002). Inside Secondary Schools A Maltese
Reader. Malta. Theme 8: Process of Learning. Pages 101-105.

Websites Cited:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cognitive+development [Accessed On: 07 / 05 / 15]
http://www.simplypsychology.org/preoperational.html [Accessed On: 07 / 05 / 15]
http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Centration [Accessed On: 07 / 05 / 15]
Howard Gardner- Profile (2015) – Accessed on 7th May 2015
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences- Accessed on 7th May 2015
Howard Gardner, Multiple intelligences and Education (2002, 2008) By Mark K. Smith - Accessed on 7th May 2015
Multiple Intelligences, By Carla Lane - Accessed on 7th May 2015
http://www.studyingstyle.com/tactile-kinesthetic-learners.html - last accessed on 10th May 2015
http://homeworktips.about.com/od/homeworkhelp/a/tactile.htm- last accessed on 10th May 2015

As you can see learning is a continuous process, and different types of scientists have explained, different types of theories.

There are so many other theories that explain the process of learning and not everyone will refer to them in the same terms, however basically they all have to do with the same concepts.

On the whole, learning can be defined as the process of effecting changes in behavior that brings about improvement in our relations with the environment.

Which is why, Education seeks to effect desired changes in the behavior of children, and it is their specific aim do so.

Conclusion Cont..
Education seeks to achieve these learning objectives for the benefit of the individuals, which is why teachers play a key role in this function...

Teachers will be the key to success to future generations, and it's our duty, as teachers to- be, to cherish each student's learning abilities, help them and look out for their learning capabilities in order to adapt and help them further!
Thank you for your attention!
Any questions ?
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