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Stalin's policies and their impact
Transcript of Stalin's policies and their impact
army discontent due to World War 1
Lenin in power by October Stalin becomes General Secretary 1922 not a major government appointment
important party role
gave him access to all the party members
Lenin disapproved! "Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary-General, has unlimited authority concentrated in his hands, and I am not sure whether he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution..."
"Stalin is too rude and this defect... becomes intolerable in a Secretary-General. That is why I suggest that the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post..."
- Lenin's Testament, 1923 Survivor: Moscow 1925-1927
Stalin allied with Bukharin to attack Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky
Bukharin expelled from Politburo
Great Terror, sparked off by Kirov's assassination Nazi-Soviet Relations 23rd August 1939
Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in Moscow; includes secret agreement to divide up Poland.
World War 2 begins.
21st June 1941
Hitler invades Russia.
August 1942- February 1943
Battle of Stalingrad; turning point of the war.
Hitler commits suicide in Berlin; Red Army occupies entirety of Eastern Europe China Turns Red 1949
Mao Zedong's Communists win the Chinese Civil War; China becomes Communist
Second major Communist country in the world
Mao's refusal to bow to Comintern authority made Russia and China rivals rather than allies. Start of the Cold War 1945
America uses atomic bomb to win the Pacific War
Stalin is concerned that nuclear power makes Russia's larger armies irrelevant
Soviet Union detonates its first atomic warhead
Nuclear arms race begins Policy policy (1)
"way of management, government, administration," late 14c., from O.Fr. policie (14c.) "civil administration," from L. politia "the state," from Gk. politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state," from PIE *p(o)lH- "enclosed space, often on high ground" (cf. Skt. pur, puram "city, citadel," Lith. pilis "fortress"). Meaning "plan of action, way of management" first recorded c.1406. Political Economic Social Objectives (key areas): consolidation of power, reduction of dissent, ensuring smooth governance, fulfilling ideological objectives
Methods (keywords): purges, assassination (and character assassination), execution, forming alliances with other politicians
Example: The Great Terror (1934-1938): Stalin's agents assassinated Sergei Kirov, allowing him to pin the blame on his rivals, Zinoviev and Kamenev. Objectives: bridge industrial gap between Russia and Allies
Methods (key phrases): exclusive focus on industrial development, agriculture for export purposes to raise foreign capital at the expense of their own people, collectivisation, expand workforce by encouraging women to work and increasing rural-urban migration, sacrificing consumer goods for industrial infrastructure
Example: Five Year Plans. 1st plan was announced a success after 4 years; attacked kulaks; resulted in 1932 famine. 2nd plan encouraged women to work and employed incentives. 3rd plan was 'wartime' plan, and although did not succeed to the same degree as the earlier plans did (due to destruction of industrial capacity) helped Russia survive the war. Objectives (key phrases): suppress dissent and counter-revolutionary sentiment among the people, remove all distractions to diligence and obedience
Methods (key phrases): propaganda, no free press, implementation of state-sponsored Terror, mass deportation of dissidents to gulags, enforced atheism
Example: Stalin's cult of personality