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PE IGCSE Revision Board

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Andy Smith

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of PE IGCSE Revision Board

PE IGCSE Revision Board
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 2 - Health, Safety and Training
Unit - 3 Reasons and opportunities for participation
Click on a Unit to start
Revision
Flashcards !!
Popling
Get
Skeletal System
Muscles
Circulatory & Respiratory
Fitness
Skill
Motivation
Drugs
Health
Diet
Safe practice
Injuries
Exercise & Training
Leisure & Recreation
Facilities
Amateur & Professional
Media
Skeletal system
The 4 functions
Skeletal system
How to Identify the two main parts of the skeleton + the major bones
- Shape and Support

- Movement

- Protection

- Blood Production
Protection
Examples
- Skull Brain
- Pelvic girdle Reproductive organs
- Ribs Heart & Lungs

Blood Production
- Red blood cells (to carry oxygen)
are produced in the bone marrow
of some long bones (femur).
- White blood cells (to protect against infection)
Movement
- Along with joints, the pulling action of muscles attached to the skeleton via tendons, creates movement, allowing us to play our favourite sports
http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/joints.php
Common
Synovial Joints
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/2_anatomy_skeleton_rev3.shtml
Classification of joints
There are 3 main types

- Cartilaginous
(Vertebrae)
- Fibrous
(teeth)
- Synovial
(Appendicular Skeleton)
Muscles
Three types of muscles

- Cardiac
(
in
voluntary
)
- Smooth
(
in
voluntary
)
- Skeletal (
voluntary
)
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Unit 1 - Factors affecting performance
Launch & Sign-up to the link below....it's free (also available for )
https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/flashcards/diejjofgldkjkhmfjagdjdodjebpglhb
Muscle composition
Skeletal
Voluntary

Striated

Attaches to bones via Tendons

Tires easily in comparison to Cardiac and Smooth
Smooth
Involuntary

Not Striated

Located in hollow organs

eg Intestines
Cardiac
Involuntary

Striated

Located in the walls of the heart

Does not tire (good endurance)
Types of muscles
Eg Bicep (upper arm)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/respiratory/1_anatomy_respiratorysys_act.shtml
Respiratory system
Voluntary muscles - Function (skeletal)
Voluntary muscles - Location (Skeletal)
Fast Twitch and Slow Twitch muscles fibres
Both are types of skeletal muscle:

Fast twitch

- Contracts with great force and speed
- Tires quickly
-
Sprinters
have a high % of these

Slow Twitch
- Contracts with little force
- Has great endurance (lasts a long time)
-
Long distance runners
have a high % of these
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/3_anatomy_muscles_rev4.shtml
Antagonistic pairs
Click here for an interactive example
Quads and Hamstrings
Bicep and Tricep
Prime movers and synergists explained
Tendons & Ligaments
Tendons
- Attach Muscle to bone
- A tough band of connective tissue
- eg Achilles Tendon
Ligaments
- Attach bone to bone
- A tough band of connective tissue
- eg Medial ligament (as shown)
Understand this
Know these
Click download & then search for 'Edexcel GCSE PE' Cards
Circulatory and Respiratory system
Think of it as a figure of 8

Heart pumps blood around the body

Oxygen is used up and returns to the heart

The deoxygenated blood is then pumped to the lungs to be reoxygenated
Systemic
Pulmonary
2 systems
Systemic System
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/gcse/biology/heart-and-circulation/revise-it/the-circulatory-system
One definition of is "where the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply".
The systemic circuit carries blood around the body to deliver the oxygen and returns de-oxygenated blood to the heart. Blood also carries nutrients and waste.
Pulmonary System
The pulmonary circuit carries blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the heart. In the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, and oxygen taken up by the haemoglobin in the red blood cells.









Carry blood to the heart (always de-oxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart)
Have thin walls
Have larger internal lumen
Contain blood under low pressure
Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards


Found in the muscles and lungs
Microscopic – one cell thick
Very low blood pressure
Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood
Arteries
Carry blood away from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs)
Have thick muscular walls
Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
Contain blood under high pressure
Veins
Capillaries
There are three types of blood vessel:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/0_anatomy_circulatorysys_rev1.shtml
Cardiovascular system explained in pictures
Important stuff
is the waste product of anaerobic respiration.
The body breaksdown glucose to release energy, when the working muscles cannot get oxygen quick enough.
Lactic acid
oxygen debt
Short term effects of exercise on the Cardiovascular System
Heart contracts more often =

Heart contracts more powerfully = –

eg it is diverted from the digestive system to the muscles.



to allow heat to be lost.

increased heart rate.
which is the volume of blood pumped from heart with each beat.
increased stroke volume,
Blood diverted to muscles,
Blood temperature rises.
Blood vessels near skin open
Long term effects of exercise on the Cardiovascular System

Heart muscle increases in size and strength.





(Hypertrophy)
(the amount of blood that the heart pumps out to the body in 1 min)
Cardiac output increases.
Lower resting heart rate
Reduced risk of heart disease.

Increased volume of blood and red blood cells.
Increased number of capillaries in muscles.
Tidal Volume
Short term effects of exercise on the Respiratory System
Long term effects of exercise on the Respiratory System
(The amount of air which enters the lungs during normal inhalation at rest)
Rate of breathing
Efficiency
Vital capacity
Number of alveoli
(The most amount of air you can exhale after taking the deepest breath you can)
(In terms of getting oxygen in and removing carbon dioxide)
(Little balloon like structures that exhange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood )
Gaseous Exchange
This type of respiration occurs when the body works without sufficient oxygen being delivered to the muscles.

Without the presence of oxygen, a waste product called lactic acid is produced in the muscles.

High lactic acid concentrations cause muscles to feel painful and can lead to cramp.
As oxygen is not being used to generate energy in anaerobic respiration, it can only be used for short bursts e.g. 100m sprint

Anaerobic Respiration Cont.

On the other hand, anaerobic respiration is the process where energy is made in the absence of oxygen.


The equation for anaerobic respiration is:

Glucose  Energy + Lactic Acid

Anaerobic Respiration

In order for the aerobic system to function effectively, there has to be a constant supply of oxygen to the body and the working muscles.

For any activity that takes place over a long period of time (e.g. Marathon) it is important to have this constant supply of oxygen to the body otherwise the body would be unable to carry out the event.

Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen and is summarised by the following equation:

Glucose + Oxygen  Energy + Carbon Dioxide +Water

This type of respiration is used when the body continues an activity for a prolonged period of time.
The energy that is needed to allow this prolonged activity is produced using oxygen.

Aerobic Respiration

Q. respiration occurs in the presence of...
A. Oxygen
Example of an Aerobic activity – Marathon Running



Q. respiration occurs in the ABSENCE of...
A. Oxygen
Example of Anaerobic activity – 100m Sprint

What is the difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration?

Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic
Anaerobic
A brief explanation of how the Cardiovascular system works
Only watch up to 1 min 30secs
Fitness
Definition
the condition of being physically fit and healthy.


Health-related Components of Fitness

&

Skill-related Components of Fitness
Can be split into two types:
Cardiovascular Endurance
Body Composition
Muscular Endurance
Flexibility
Agility
Power
Balance
Reaction Time
Coordination
Muscular Strength
Speed
Make sure you understand what these terms mean
Health-related components and how to test them
CV Endurance

Muscular Endurance

Muscular Strength

Body Composition

Flexibility
Cooper 12 min run

Press-up test

Grip strength - Dynamometer

Skin fold test

Sit and Reach Test
Skill-related components and how to test them
Agility

Coordination

Power

Reaction Time

Balance

Speed
Illinois Agility Test

Throw and catch rebounding off wall with opposite hand

Vertical jump

Metre rule drop test

Stork test

60m Sprint
Skill
A skill is the learned ability to bring about pre-determined results with maximum certainty; often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both."
Complex _________________________________________ Basic

Open __________________________________________ Closed skills

Fine ___________________________________________ Gross
Lay-up in Basketball Running
Affected by the environment Shot - put
Pool shot Shot Put
Factors affecting Skill
Age

Gender

Motivation

Anxiety and Arousal

Environment

Teaching and Coaching
http://www.teachpe.com/gcse_health/age_gender.php


http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/3_performance_personalfactors_rev1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/3_performance_personalfactors_rev2.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/3_performance_personalfactors_rev2.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/3_performance_personalfactors_rev3.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/3_performance_personalfactors_rev3.shtml

Inverted U Theory
Information Processing Model
Important stuff
Feedback
Decision making
Input
Output
Stimulus from your environment
What you do based on your decision
This is used to adjust your decision making and therfore your output when faced with similar input
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic


Extrinsic

Coming form your own feelings


Coming from external rewards - Money, Trophies, celebrity

Personalaity and Performance
Introvert



Extrovert

are usually shy. They perform better at lower arousal levels.




are socially outgoing. They need high arousal levels to perform.

Suited to more gentle sports eg golf, snooker etc where they need to stay calm
Suited to aggressive sports eg Rugby, Boxing
Physique
the form, size, and development of a person's body.
3 main body types are:


V-shaped body, wide shoulders, narrow hips, muscular. Ideal body type for sprinters.
Thin-shaped body, thin faced, with little fat or muscle. This is the ideal body type for long-distance runners.
Pear-shaped body, wide hips, wide shoulders, can have a lot fat on body, arms and thighs. When fit, ideal body type for weightlifting, wrestling
Drugs
a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested
You must understand the effect that the following have on the body and give sporting examples for each.
Social Drugs
a medicine or other substance which has a physiological/psychological effect when ingested
Blood Doping



Beta Blockers

Blood doping is injecting blood that has been removed from the body a few days earlier, enabling the blood to carry more oxygen. It is banned as it's a form of cheating. It can cause kidney and heart failure. Widely used in cycling (tour de france)


Beta blockers are banned in archery and shooting as they keep the heart rate low and reduce tremble in the hands.
Motor Skill
A particular action or set of actions that
create movement.

eg. Walking, Running, Jumping etc
Full transcript