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Copy of Does the electoral dominance of the ANC pose a threat to dem

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Yasmin Fathizadeh

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Does the electoral dominance of the ANC pose a threat to dem

Does the electoral dominance of the ANC pose a threat to democracy in post-Apartheid South Africa?
Nelson Mandela said to COSATU annual congress in 1993, ‘if the ANC does not deliver the goods you must do to it what you did to the apartheid regime’ (Saul, 2005: 73).
Predictions for May 2014
By Yasmin Fathizadeh, Matthew Bush, James Clifton & Moyo Obe
What is democracy?
Does the electoral dominance of the ANC pose a threat to democracy in post-Apartheid South Africa?
From apartheid to democracy?
On paper South Africa appears to have made the transition.
27th April 1994 the ANC in alliance with COSATU and the SACP won 62.6% of the national vote
Closest opponent was the NP with only 20% (Beinart, 2001: 291-292)
ANC's success was certainly democratic, fair and reflected the political opinions of the public.(Beinart, 2001: 292)
The Constitution
Foundations of open society with- social justice and to progress as a democracy
Rights to life
Human dignity
Freedom of expression
Right to peaceful assembly and demonstration
Formal political rights introduced
The constitution had grand ambitions but did this translate to reality?
The electoral dominance of the ANC does pose a threat to democracy in post-Apartheid South Africa!

Summary Points:
-Dominant Party Theory
-Corruption allegations and lack of accountability
-Protection of information bill or the 'secrecy bill'
-The consequential impact on the media and whistleblowers
-Hierarchical system of governance
-No viable opposition
-Hence the political monopoly
-Don't have to tackle social and economic problems as they know they will be re-elected
-One party dominant system

Hierachical Organisation
Nelson Mandela & Voter Loyalty
Hierarchical organisation A highly centralized and hierarchical state, which the ANC has inherited from the NP. This means minorities are barely protected, the neutrality of the civil service is subverted
Direct Governance rather than Local Governance
ANC have direct power over ministries
'Nothing could be more dangerous, than an uninterested and uninvolved electorate' (Deegan, 2001:167)
Commenting on the new democratic system in South Africa, scholars have noted that: ‘It is neither a genuine presidential system nor a federation although it has aspects of both’ (Schrire: 2008: 192). This illustrates the dominance of the ANC headed by Zuma, centralising power and entrenching a one-party system.

Who represented the ANC?
Many ANC members were from exile groups, guerrilla movements and Robben Island links.
Guerrilla groups: superiors make all the decision, ANC brought that hierarchy into contemporary politics.

'Loyalty' Key
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. Openly attacked ANC on appeasing whites and neglecting poor
Batu Holomisa, accused a cabinet colleague of corruption
Tito Mboweni stated that the ANC would invest considerable efforts into developing policy apparatus' that would ensure a broader range of people were drawn into the organisation

Hierarchical and militant rhetoric within the ANC.
Democracy is a contested concept
Larry Diamond: citizens assert themselves but accept the authority of the government
Giuseppe di Palma: South African's must accept the strict limitations of democracy in their country, as democratic governance was founded when there was a possibility of conflict
'Coexistence takes precedence over any radical social and economic programs' (Saul, 2005: 56-57).
‘While the definition of democracy should by no means be reduced to the holding of elections, elections are undoubtedly a key vehicle by which the political leadership is able to retain dominance’ (Brooks, 2004).
Archbishop Tutu said the ANC needed a "viable opposition", adding: "Democracy flourishes where there is vigorous debate and people are actually careful of what they do" (Berger 2008).
South Africa commended for what appeared to be the foundations of democratic consolidation through a negotiated transition, not a revolution (Beinart: 289).
The ANC is the dominant party in SA, since it's role as a liberation group- representation of black South Africans

Corruption within the ANC
Sam Sole defines it as ‘the willful subversion (or attempted subversion) of a due decision-making process with regard to the allocation of any benefit’ (Daniel et al., 2005: 87) and the lack of accountability in South African Governance pose big problems to the democracy.
Up until the 1990s the ANC understandably led a secretive, ‘need to know’ culture- trust and loyalty were prized above all. Hyslop argues that this often leads to patronage, additionally the Marxist thought that ANC associates with contributes to a hegemonic approach to politics in terms of accountability (Daniel 2005: 94)
Zuma accepted huge sums of money from private business interests (Daniel, 2005: 92). - Corruption and stealing taxpayers’ money now is worse than prior to apartheid:
FW de Klerk, South Africa's last white president, who left office in 1994, received 236,000 rand (£14,179) for upgrades to his house, while 32m rand (£1.9m) was spent on Nelson Mandela's home’ (Smith: 2013)

Dominant Party Theory
The idea of the ANC as a dominant party starts from the obvious fact of its overwhelming popular majority, and its apparent invincibility at the polls.
(South African Election Results 2009

(ANC Dominant electoral Success over four elections

Dominant Party Features
Basing themselves on the classic statement of Pempel (1990); where Pempel highlights that the Dominant Party Theory is common amongst ‘New Democracies’. Giliomee and Simkins (1999) define dominant parties as those which:
Establish electoral dominance for an uninterrupted and prolonged period
Enjoy dominance in the formation of governments
Enjoy dominance in determining public agenda, notably with regard to pursuit of a ‘historical project’ (Giliomee and Simkins 1999)

‘They argue (Pempel et al) that there is a fundamental tension between dominant party rule and democracy, and that whereas party dominance can pave the way to competitive democracy, in others it cam lead to facade democracy or barely concealed authoritarianism’ (Southall 2005: 3)

Giliomee, Myburgh and Schlemmer (2004) argue that post-1994 South Africa is a ‘Dominant Party’ Democracy due to the following characteristics……
A lack of uncertainty about electoral outcomes. South African elections take on the characteristic of a racial census", which is admitted to be a complex, not a crude phenomenon, requiring disaggregation. Opposition therefore becomes peripheralised.
‘South African politics have become less exciting and more predictable’ (Lodge 2003:160)

Congress of the People-COPE
Proportional Representation:

Diversity at the cost of coherence (Lodge, 2002: 157).
Proportional Representation has a very low threshold to enter parliament
African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP)
African National Congress (ANC)
African Peoples' Convention (APC)
Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO)
Congress of the People (COPE)
Democratic Alliance (DA)
Freedom Front + (FF+)
Minority Front (MF)
Independent Democrats (ID)
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)
South African Communist Party
United Christian Democratic Party
United Democratic Movement
Democratic consolidation?
Independent Electoral Commission:
Registration to vote from 1999.
5.3 million didn't have the required bar-coded documentation.
Of these, 2.6 million were white/indian/coloured (Deegan, 2001: 168-176).

Adam Habib, an analyst stated that what keeps parties honest is uncertainty, and the fear that corruption and abuse will persuade voters to give others chance- ANC do not currently face that problem with their monopoly on state and political power (Daniel:2005 109-110).
Corruption does not remain isolated, it contaminates the system (Daniel, 2005: 90).
ANC often fight back at reports of corruption asserting these accusers are racist and want democratic state to fail (Daniel, 2005: 88).
A number of academics including Herman Giliomee believe that the elections have certainly produced a ‘one party-dominant system’ (similarly to Mexico and Tawain) that poses a threat to democracy in South Africa (Saul, 2005: 70).
Terreblanche supports this notion- stating that 'apartheid has a worst legacy than was realised in 1994', which is not being dealt with effectively by the ANC (Terreblanche, 2002: 419).
‘The danger is that in the process, the ANC's dominance will become increasingly authoritarian and less friendly to the democracy ushered in by the political transition and the election of 1994’ (Southall, 1998, p. 469).

‘At present the growing disillusionment with delivery failures and high levels of corruption within the ANC has not eroded the loyalty of most of its supporters’ (Schrire: 2008: 210)

Bassett, C, & Clarke, M 2008, 'The Zuma Affair, Labour and the Future of Democracy in South Africa', Third World Quarterly, 29, 4, pp. 787-803

Berger, S: (2008) ‘ANC party dominance hurts South Africa, say experts’ The Telegraph, 6th October, [Online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/southafrica/3147033/ANC-party-dominance-hurts-South-Africa-say-experts.html Accessed: 10/03/2014

Brooks, H: (2004) ‘The Dominant Party System: Challenges for South Africa’s Second Decade of Democracy’ The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA), [Online] Available at: http://www.content.eisa.org.za/pdf/OP25.pdf - Accessed: 10/03/2014

Hammett, D 2010, 'Zunami! The 2009 South African elections, edited by Roger Southall and John Daniel', African Affairs, 109, 437, pp. 676-677

Merten, M: (2014) ‘2014 polls offer no easy choice’ IOL News, 21st January, [Online] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/2014-polls-offer-no-easy-choice-1.1634028#.Ux9cpPnV8pA - Accessed: 10/03/2014

Nyambura-Mwaura, H: (2004) ‘South Africa to hold elections in May, ANC set for reduced majority’, Reuters, 7th February, [Online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/07/us-safrica-elections-idUSBREA160M820140207 - Accessed: 10/03/2014

Ndlangisa, et al., (2014). Elections 2014: Will it be ANC vs EFF?.
City Press
. [Online]. Retrieved on 20th March 2014 from: http://www.citypress.co.za/politics/elections-2014-will-anc-vs-eff/.

Smith, D: (2013): ‘Jacob Zuma accused of corruption 'on a grand scale' in South Africa’, The Guardian, 29th November: [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/29/jacob-zuma-accused-corruption-south-africa - Accessed: 16/03/2014

Southall, R 1998, 'The centralization and fragmentation of South Africa's dominant party system', African Affairs, 97, 389, p. 443

Smith: (2013) ‘South Africa secrecy law surprise as Zuma rejects controversial bill’, The Guardian, 12th September, [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/12/south-africa-zuma-secrecy-bill - Accessed: 20.03.14

Schrire, RA 2008, 'Parliamentary Opposition after Apartheid: South Africa', Journal Of Legislative Studies, 14, 1/2, pp. 190-211

Beinart, William (2001), Twentieth-Century South Africa (2nd edition), Oxford, Oxford University Press, Chapter 11.

Deegan, H. (2001). The Politics of the New South Africa: Apartheid and After. Pearson Education Ltd: London.

Lodge, Tom (2003), Politics in South Africa: From Mandela to Mbeki, Oxford: James Currey, Chapter 8.

Sole, Sam (2005), ‘The state of corruption and accountability’ in John Daniel, Roger Southall and Jessica Lutchman (eds.) State of the Nation: South Africa 2004-2005, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.

Butler, A. (2005). “How Democratic is the African National Congress?” Journal of Southern African Studies 31, no. 4 (2005): 719-735.

Giliomee, H. and Simians, C. (Eds.). (1999): The Awkward Embrace: One Party Dominationand Democracy. Cape Town. Tafelberg.

IOL News (2006), ‘World Journo body slams SABC for documentary’ http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/world-journo-body-slams-sabc-for-documentary-1.282165#.Uw4V8hB_uSo

Leftwich, Adrian. “The Politics of Democratic Governance in the Third World.” In States of Development: on the Primacy of Politics in Development. 127-152. Cambridge: Polity, 2000.

Lodge, Tom. (2003). “Democracy in a Dominant Party System.” In Politics in South Africa: from Mandela to Mbeki. 153-176. 2nd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,

Mare (2001): Race, Democracy and Opposition in South African Politics: As Other a Way as Possible. In: Southall R. (Ed.): Opposition and Democracy in South Africa. London. Frank Cass: 85-102.

Pempel, TJ. (Ed) (1990): Uncommon Democracies. Ithaca, NY. Cornell University Press.

Southall. R. (2005), ‘The Dominant Party Debate in South Africa’, Institute of African Affairs at GIGA http://www.jstor.org/stable/40175055

Wieczorek. R. (2011), ‘ANC Dominance and Democratic Consolidation in South Africa’ Penn State Journal of InternatIonal affaIrS. http://psujia.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/anc_dominance_final.pdf

Leader is Mosiuoa Lekota.
Formed in 2008 by the people who left ANC.
Broke up with the rest of the ANC due to rifts within the party.
Third biggest party in South Africa.
Political stance is Liberal.
‘Progressive and diverse’
Improve position of minorities and women

Can they gain power?
Have different policies to ANC
Want to restructure the top level of government.
Are willing to form a coalition with DA
Despite being a new political party they finished third in the general election
ANC losing population

Too much of a new party
ANC is a dominant party

Democratic Alliance
Election Results
(Schrire, RA 2008, 'Parliamentary Opposition after Apartheid: South Africa', Journal Of Legislative Studies, 14, 1/2, pp. 194).
Leader is Helen Zile.
Formed back in the 1970’s to fight against the apartheid.
The second biggest party in South Africa.
Political stance is the centre ground. Attributes of centre right and centre left.
They want to create an ‘Open Opportunity Society For All’
Criticise the ANC for making a society which is ‘Closed’ and ‘Crony’ for citizens.

Can they gain power?
They share different policies than the ANC
Crime – Want to conquer fear and command hope which they feel ANC have failed to do.
Economy – ‘Break The Cycle Of Poverty’
Starting to gain more popularity
They won the vote in Western Cape Provincial
Winning more of the proportion of votes
More support from black people
Image of Helen Zile
ANC helped them out of the oppression
Dominate party system
Supported by the Electoral system – Proportional Representation

ANC Promotional video:
Protection of State Information Bill
- The Secrecy Bill, is a highly controversial piece of proposed legislation that aimed to regulate the classification, of state information, weighing state interests up against transparency and freedom of expression.
- The bill was passed by parliament on 22 November 2011.

Right 2 Know Campaign
-Coalition of organisations responding to the Protection of Information Bill
-Stop the secrecy bill, promote media freedom and whistleblower rights
-Changes were made
-However, the bill still passed- despite the opposition of right2know
Media Influence
-In May 2006, the SABC was accused of self censorship, when it decided not to air a documentary on South African President Thabo Mbeki (IOL News 2006).
-In June 2006 the International Federation of Journalists denounced the canceling of the Thabo Mbeki documentary, citing "self censorship" and "politically influenced managers“(IOL News 2006).
-The autonomy of independent bodies like the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) has been eroded
-Any challenge to the ANC is challenged as a resistance to democracy and transition from apartheid.
-In August of 2013 opinion polls suggested that ANC national share of the vote is expected to drop from 65.9% to 56.2% according to Nomura South Africa.
-IPOS survey has supported this in their own research as it shows ANC’s share of the vote to be at 53%.
-Also they claim that the Democratic Alliance could have up to 30% of the vote. However, they claim that it may be unlikely that up to 30% will be achieved.
-Susan Booysen a political analysis claims that there will be a fall in the number that turn out to vote but due to South African allegiances towards ANC they will win the vote.

Critics of the bill: - legal experts, opposition parties and a wide range of civil society bodies argued that the Bill does not correctly balance these competing principles, and point to a number of provisions that undermine the right to access information and the rights of whistleblowers and journalists.
(Smith, 2013).
Full transcript