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Great Cities of the Mughal Empire

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Ana Quel

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Great Cities of the Mughal Empire

Part 1. Statistics 1.2 India nowadays 1.1 The Mughal Empire (1526 - 1757) Part 2. Capitals of an empire TABLE 1. MUGHAL IMPERIAL CAP1TALS 2.1 The cities AGRA The construction of Agra's fort. Akbar's tomb A marketplace in Agra LAHORE Mosque Lahore Open air restaurant in Lahore SHAHJAHANABAD (Delhi) A view of the Jami Masjid in Delhi, a coloured aquatint by Thomas Daniell, London, 1795 Chandni Chauwk,plate 10 from H. H. Wilsons The Oriental Portfolio'_ 1841 Cross-roads, Chandni Chowk, Delhi, Bickers & Son, London, 1878_old delhi Eastern Gate of the Jami Musjid at Delhi, by Thomas Daniell, London, 1795 The Chandni Chowk from the top of the Lahore Gate of the Fort, the canal depicted running down the middle, by Sita Ram, 1814-15)old delhi The courtyard and iwan of the Jami Masjid at Delhi; a watercolor by Seeta Ram, 1814-15 The Red Fort (usually transcribed into English as Lal Qil'ah or Lal Qila) is a 17th century fort complex constructed by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan[1] in the walled city of Old Delhi (in present day Delhi, India) FATEHPUR SIKRI Fatehput_Sikiri_BulandDarwaza_gate_2010 2.2 Mobility in Mughal Capitals “Prior to the 18th century it cannot be truly said that there was a single city in the Mughal empire which possessed the unique metropolitan attributes of, say, contemporary Paris or London in relation to the kingdoms of France or England.” (p.446 – Cambridge Economic History of India) Factors that may have underlain the practice of shifting or mobile capitals

1.responses to local political, military, and logistical conditions that affected imperial stability;
2.economic and demographic factors that allowed for such prodigious use of human and material resources and such conspicuous displays of imperial wealth;
3.ideological factors – in particular, attempts by rulers and their dependents to symbolically equate the king’s person with the empire and the desires of individual rulers to define and materially represent their centrality to imperial structure and stability. 2.3 Court’s structure The Mobile Imperial Camp Agra is considered one of the greatest cities in history, served as capitals of different empires, between 1526 and 1648 Agra served five times as the capital of the Mughal empire. Its location on the margins of the river Yamuna in the north, was strategic for the trades with other Empires in Asia. Together with Lahore and Delhi, it has a partially Islamic character. It is a non-walled city and its better known constructions are: the Taj Mahal (constructed Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Maha) and Akbar’s tomb (planed and constructed by himself and completed by his son Jahangir in 1605-1613). Lahore is, today’s capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country, it served as capital of the Mughal emperors Humayun (1540-1554) and Akbar (1584-1596). It was called the city of gardens among the Mughals and is well known for its beauty. Shahjahanabad (old Delhi), constructed by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan in 1639 was the mark of the shift of the capital of the great Indian rulers to its roots. It is said that it was better planed than Agra (a non-walled city), therefore also more secure. Fatehpur Sikri, located just few miles from Agra, today a ghost city (Unesco heritage), was constructed by Akbar in honor of his son prince Salim (Jahangir) and served as capital between 1571 and 1585. The site is the most dramatic physical expression of Akbar's concept of kingship and his genius, and he is believed to have been intimaly involved with the planning and construction of the city. Paradox
“merchant profit, a major source of high income which contributed to the upward mobility of artisans in Europe, was virtually absent in the India case.
In fact, mobility of any sort – beyond the movement of rural producers to the localized centres of production – appears to have been strictly limited."
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