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The Atlantic World

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by

Mark McClellan

on 21 August 2014

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Transcript of The Atlantic World

1555 Map of the Americas
Before the Americas were 'discovered'...
Collision Course
Indian Village
Before Europe was 'discovered'...
Collision Course
Columbian Exchange
Massive exchange that transforms the world forever
Demographic Disaster
Africa
Before the Americas were 'discovered'....
Collision Course
The Atlantic World
Corresponds with Chapter 1
Contact
European View of the Indians
Indian Freedom, European Freedom
Portuguese Exploration
Exploration Begins
Why Portugal and why explore?
Two minute oral presentations Tuesday
Volunteers
1. Europe traded with Asia
2. Both traded with limited parts of Africa
3. Muslims of the Middle East controlled the African slave trade
4. Virtually all of Europe was Catholic
5. Land was viewed as the source of power
6. Muslims controlled many of the trade routes between Europe and Asia
So, the world was believed to look something like this...
1. No means of long distance travel
2. No written languages
3. Approximately 600 different languages
4. Estimated 3-8 million people
5. Extensive variety in housing, religion, gender relations, agriculture, trade
Northeastern Indians
Iroquois, Delaware, Seneca, Mohawk, Mohican
Whale, salmon, shellfish, apples
Wooden houses
Slaveholders
Plains Indians
Sioux, Cheyenne, Blackfoot, Pawnee
Buffalo, foxes, coyotes, rabbits, bears
Nomadic (weather, food)
Southeast Indians
Seminole, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek
Settled agriculture
Corn, squash, beans, deer
Western Indians
Apache, Pueblo, Shoshonee, Zuni, Hope
Roots, acorns, seeds, corn
1. Wide range of natural products
2. Wide variance from region to region
3. Operated highly profitable slave trade
4. Religious diversity
4. Middle and South Africa unknown to Europeans, Asians (the Dark Continent)
1. Alternated between a view of 'noble savages' and 'uncivilized, brutal savages'
2. Indians viewed Europeans initially as weak and ugly
3. Europeans demeaned Indians over three areas - religion, land use and gender relations
Religion
Indians saw nature as a world of spirits and souls; Europeans saw it as potential commodities and economic power
Indians - shamans, witch doctors, medicine men; Europeans - true religion promotes civilization
Land Use
Europeans - a vacant wilderness in need of cultivation and improvement
Indians - no concept of individual property ownership; the land was give and take
Gender relations
Indians - Men were the hunters; women did the agricultural work
Europeans - Women's job was to care for the family, not work, thus Indian men viewed as weak and women as mistreated
Freedom in Europe was not a social or political concept. It was religious - freedom from sin. Obedience to the law.
The goal is access to Asian trade markets
Once Portugal establishes routes around tip of Africa, great consternation arises in Spain
Enter this guy
Old World to New
Horses
Cattle
Pigs
Sheep
Chickens
Goats
New World to Old
Turkeys
Llamas
Alpacas
Guinea Pigs
Rice
Wheat
Barley
Oats
Coffee
Sugarcane
Melons
Olives
Dandelions
Clover
Daisies
Ragweed
Corn
Potatoes
Beans
Tobacco
Peanuts
Squash
Peppers
Tomatoes
Smallpox
Measles
Chickenpox
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Influenza
Syphilis
What is the impact?
Hernan Cortes
Francisco Pizarro
Hernando de Soto
Bartolome de las Casas
No biographies!!!!!
What did they do that was important?
How did they do it?
Sample Quiz
What is not a characteristic of American Indians?
A. They arrived in the Americas as early as 60,000 to 15,000 years ago
B. There were four major tribes in North America
C. Agriculture emerged in Mexico and the Andes about the same time it emerged in Mesopotamia; about 9,000 years ago
D. There were no known written languages
When Columbus sailed in 1492, most all of Christian Europe was Catholic.
True or False
Which was not an aspect of Native American religious beliefs?
A. The written text was called Wicca
B. Spiritual powers existed in animals, plants, wind and water
C. Shamans held positions of authority
D. Participation in religious rituals was important to comunity involvement
Which of the following countries did not have a colonial presence in North America?
A. Spain
B. France
C. Germany
D. The Netherlands
On the eve of colonization of the Americas, freedom in Europe was framed in hierarchical top-down terms, with each level enjoying certain degrees of freedom.
True or False
Full transcript