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The Nepal Water Crisis

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on 18 May 2016

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Transcript of The Nepal Water Crisis

Education
Education is
critical
to breaking poverty

Students have to miss class to fetch water

When teachers are sick, school is closed
Short Term: Chlorination (CD
D
)
Until we are able to construct a large scale filtration method, we must provide a
short term alternative
. This method, though dangerous in nature, is also
cheap and readily available
, making it a viable solution to Nepal's Water Crisis.
The Nepal Water Crisis
Presenters: Tianyi, Mark, Raymond, Poojith, Anjanay
The Task
We need to design a cost efficient method that can help the Nepalese people collect, decontaminate, and transport drinking water. If we succeed, then we will create many benefits for the Nepalese people, for example,
reduced poverty, reduced hunger, higher education rates, and better health
throughout Nepal.
As reported by the World Bank,
Nepal is one of the
poorest
nations
in the world with an estimated
GDP per capita of US $470
.
With a staggering
42%
of the population
living below the
poverty
line and only
27%

with

improved
access to sanitation
, there
are quite a number of issues facing Nepal.
Some of these
significant challenges
are related to water
pollution and
water scarcity.

Chlorine also has the added advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to use. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "A bottle of hydrochloride solution that
treats 1,000 liters of water costs about 10 US cents
using refillable bottles and 11-50 US cents using disposable bottles, for a cost of
0.01-0.05 cents per liter treated
."
Chlorine, added in
small amounts
to the water supply, or as individual tablets to water, can
kill bacteria
and other micro-organisms, while
not affecting humans.


The Collection (
C
DD)
Step 1: Provide Water

20%, or 5.6 million people do not have access to water.

Best ways to collect water:
- Rainwater
- Moisture
- Groundwater
Moisture/Humidity
Groundwater
Groundwater
in Nepal is
highly abundant

because of the composition of Nepal's ground. However, recently, the depletion of groundwater has made the extraction of groundwater decrease to a depth of 20 meters below ground level.
Groundwater Extraction Method
Groundwater is more common under valleys than under hills.
Areas where water is
at the surface
reflect the presence of groundwater.
Nepal shows traces of
massive amounts of groundwater
Wells are tested to determine the amount of water moving through the area, the volume of water that can enter a well, and the effects of
pumping on water levels in other areas
.
Nepal's climate includes
very high humidity

year round
, and pretty
cold temperatures
, which makes collecting water from the air highly effective.
Cotton Polymer Material Method
This fabric is made out of cotton with a special polymer coating
The polymer is
extremely absorbent
up to 93.2 Fahrenheit (or 34 Celsius) and
can absorb 340%
of their own weight
Cotton and polymer are highly
common, cheap and widely available materials
Once temperature exceeds 93.2 Fahrenheit (34 C) the material closes up and
releases its water
Rain
Nepal's climate includes
a lot of rain
, and using this advantage, we can
collect the rain for drinking water
. Usage of rain barrels will greatly succeed in capturing as much rain as possible.
Step 2: Distribute the water

Nepal's geography and road infrastructure is very primitive.

Must transport water by main roads and by hand on paths
The Distribution: C
D
D
Short Distance Distribution
Nepalese people need an efficient way to
distribute the water
Main vehicles distribute the water to
major crossroads
Works over extremely
terraneous lands

Does no lose any water in the process
The Hippo Roller
The Hippo roller is an extremely effective and
efficient roller
can carry large amounts of water. It
carries 90 liters
(5 x buckets),
the weight is spread among the ground.
There is a
large opening
for easy cleaning, and it can
last 5 to 7 years
Also, the wide rolling surface helps compact soil to
minimize erosion.
Nepal has a plan to expand their road infrastructure so that even the most isolated areas of Nepal are covered.
Road Expansion and Vehicle Transport
Road Expansion
Nepal plans on expanding their highway systems to
cover more
of their country.

According to World Highways, Nepal has political ties to China and India, and World Bank's funding is making it
possible to expand
their road infrastructure.
Vehicle Transport
Trucks and larger land vehicles.

Small airports service transport helicopters and small aircraft
You have found the secret circle!!
Congratulations!
Causes of the Nepal Water Crisis
Surface and ground water contaminated by industry and domestic waste.
The domestic
sewage system is considered one of the top sources of water pollution that seeps into rivers and lakes,

which are the primary sources of drinking water.
Almost half of
150 tons of waste produced
by Kathmandu daily is dumped into rivers.
80% of the waste water is generated by households.
Surface water
sources alone have become
inadequate to service everyone
.
The Nepal Sewage Decontamination (CD
D
)
Step 3: Decontaminate the water to it drinkable

Most of the contaminated water is actually contaminated by the waste generated by neighborhoods.
Congratulation!
You found the hidden circle!
Now zoom back out really slowly or really fast.

Our program first requires a well known organization such as the WHO to help establish a program for volunteers to go to Nepal so that they can:
In the short term-
Start the "collect, distribute, and decontaminate" (CDD) system
Ensure the health of Nepalese citizens
In the long term-
Educate the Nepalese of how to run the "collect, distribute, and decontaminate" system
Construct a proper sewage system
Guide the construction of a transportation network
Our Action Plan

Our solution clearly solves the problem of
collecting clean water
and is even able to
fix filtering sewage water
and lake water in two different processes one will need to expend a lot more money than we do.
In our idea we have the sewage leading into its own plant and rejoining the lake plant to cleanse twice makes it
available to drink
and use in other processes. Our solution both
saves money
and gives Nepal
the basic right to water
that every human deserves.
A company that creates
water treatment solutions
for all types of applications
Has created this technology but has not used it in Nepal.
We have also added things to their process and
improved upon their system
.
Once the system is built, we can hire Nepalese people to operate it,
creating more jobs
.
The process will be expensive
Almost everything that is long term
requires little maintenance.

Our idea combines various machines that
Lenntech

has created
and
Newah
's
effort
We wish to achieve the
unlimited water purification
allowing Nepal to have access to clean drinking water for many years.

While the water filtration system is being built, we can
hire Nepalese people
to drive the water transport trucks to the various communities.
NEWAH, Nepal Water for Health
NEWAH, Nepal Water and Health, works on Nepal’s water, sanitation, and hygiene.
Formed in 1992, this program has been
building water collection, distribution, and filtration systems.
Very successful in accumulating water for the Nepalese population.
Estimates that through their efforts, they may be able to help
provide enough water for 95% of the population
by
2017
.
Sources:
http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/climate/
http://inhabitat.com/revolutionary-waterwheel-helps-women-transport-water-more-efficiently-in-india/
http://hipporoller.org/water-roller/
http://www.sswm.info/content/arsenic-removal-technologies
http://www.zmescience.com/science/cotton-polymer-water-mist-absorbing-material-423423/
http://www.sswm.info/content/arsenic-removal-technologies
http://www.sswm.info/content/arsenic-removal-technologies
http://edu.symbaloo.com/mix/innovatorresources1
http://www.nepal.climatemps.com/humidity.php
https://webgovernments.wordpress.com/2011/11/26/rain-water-harvesting-solution-to-water-crisis-in-nepal/
http://www.charitywater.org/projects/countries/nepal/?utm_medium=ppc&utm_source=adwords&utm_campaign=problemgeo&utm_content=waternepal4&gclid=CjwKEAjwqLWrBRC-_OaG-IfL0kASJAAbzKsV97sHrl_uxFb6bWz-kKHOaEnyVhEhoAjd0foz9dmM_xoCVNLw_wcB
http://www.worldbank.org/projects/search?lang=en&searchTerm=&regionname_exact=South+Asia&tab=map
http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp268726.pdf
http://www.devinfo.org/libraries/aspx/Catalog.aspx
http://thewaterproject.org/water-in-crisis-nepal
http://www.who.int/countries/npl/en/
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nepal
http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_npl_en.pdf
http://www.dwss.gov.np/
http://www.numbeo.com/pollution/city_result.jsp?country=Nepal&city=Kathmandu
http://www.ais.unwater.org/ais/pluginfile.php/232/mod_page/content/131/Nepal_CountryPaper.pdf
http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/701/arsenic-contamination-of-groundwater-in-nepal-good-public-health-intention-gone-bad
http://www.irinnews.org/report/75570/nepal-lack-of-toilets-poor-hygiene-fuel-water-borne-diseases
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BiIWAg7fEBIJ:www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/12/011210162809.htm+water+borne+illnesses+in+nepal,+children&cd=17&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a&source=www.google.com
http://www.nepalfreed.org/nepallife.html
http://www.lenntech.com/processes/arsenic/arsenic-removal.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenic
http://www.worldhighways.com/sections/key-projects/features/nepal-plans-road-in
frastructure-expansion/
https://www.engineeringforchange.org/news/2012/03/11/ten_low_cost_ways_to_treat_water.html
http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/nepal/state.htm
http://water.me.vccs.edu/exam_prep/cdisinfect.htm
http://chlorine.americanchemistry.com/Science-Center/Chlorine-Compound-of-the-Month-Library/Ferric-Chloride-Clearing-the-STUFF-Out-of-Water
http://www.cdc.gov/safewater/chlorination.html
www.watertechonline.com/articles/a-look-at-two-arsenic-removal-technologies
http://waterus.com/alkalizer.htm
http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportal/index.cfm?page=country_historical_climate&ThisRegion=Asia&ThisCCode=NPL#
http://www.solvaychemicals.com/Chemicals%20Literature%20Documents/Chlorinated_inorganics/DOC-1610-0003-W-EN_WW_.pdf
http://blogs.eciad.ca/printmedia/files/2008/03/working-with-ferric-chloride.pdf
http://www.headworksinternational.com/biological-wastewater-treatment/mbbr.aspx
http://www.heritage.org/index/country/nepal
http://www.waterworld.com/articles/2012/03/mbbr-market-to-grow.html
http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2010/world/experts-name-the-top-19-solutions-to-the-global-freshwater-crisis/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteriophage
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278648/

Cost Estimate
Short term- using
inexpensive

chlorination techniques, hippo rollers, and cotton-polymer materials
.

Long term- increase in cost with the
construction of roads, sewage systems, water filtration sites
across the country.

We will be fundraising through NGO’s, America, China, and India to provide Nepal with proper filtration and a better economy.

We designed a filtration and recycling plan for Nepal's sewage system.
Thank you for watching! We hope that you will join us in our efforts to provide clean water for the Nepalese people.
Why us?
Our solution....

Is inexpensive in the long run
For the most part has low maintenance
It can be funded by the Public (NGO's, WHO, KIVA, etc...)
Uses new technology and genetic engineering that are more reliable
Solves Nepal's water crisis
It builds upon existing technology (less money spent researching new ideas)
Can be used all over the world
Is unique and assembled by us


The Problem
Nepal is a landlocked
nation with the current
population of over
27 million
people.
Benefits
Poverty
Inhabitants have to
work each day to get water

Unable to
hold jobs and
earn money

Political instability, ethnic conflicts, climate change and mainly lack of water cause poverty
Hunger
Food is
hard to grow

Difficult to preserve and prepare

Most of the population live as farmers
Health
80% of illnesses
are linked to poor water

Tiny worms and
bacteria live in water

Every glass of dirty water can be a killer
As reported by the World Bank,
Nepal is one of the
poorest
nations
in the world with an estimated
GDP per capita of US $470
.
$10,000 US
Annually
$790,000 US
Annually
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Full transcript