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The Digestive System

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Katherine Overbo

on 20 July 2014

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Transcript of The Digestive System

The Esophagus
- a muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
Wall of the Digestive Tract
Sphincters are the "valve muscles".
If peristalsis begins without food in the esophagus it feels like you have a lump in your throat.
Peristalsis is a rhythmic contraction that helps to push food along the entire alimentary canal.
The Esophagus stays collapsed until it opens to receive the bolus and peristalsis is activated.
Lumen - glandular epithelium secretes enzymes and goblet cells secret mucous
Mucosa - epithelium supported by connective tissue and smooth muscles
Submucosa - band of loose connective tissue, contains blood vessels

Serosa - thin squamous epithelium supported by connective tissue that secretes fluid. Keeps intestines moist so they can slide against each other.
Adventitia -
Outer layer of esophagus
Esophageal Sphincter
A difficulty swallowing that is caused by Lower Esophageal Sphincter's inability to relax.
Difficulty swallowing
Chest pain
Weight loss
Normally adults have 32 teeth
Four different types of teeth on each half of the jaw

*Last molars called wisdom teeth , may fail to come in, or grow crooked and need to be extracted
Eating slowly and drinking water
Botox to paralyze the muscle
Balloon dilation
The Stomach
- a thick-walled organ on the left side of the abdominal cavity
The Effects of Aging
Hiatal Hernia
Part of Esophagus below diaphragm protrudes into thoracic cavity
Lower esophageal sphincter opens allowing chyme into esophagus
Lower esophageal sphincter does not open and bolus cannot enter
A condition that prevents digestion and causes abnormal vomiting. It occurs most commonly in male infants. The opening out of the stomach narrows as the pylorus enlarges.
Inability to gain weight
Pyloric Stenosis
Physical Examination
Radiographic Studies
The Digestive System
Cassandra Allen
Chioma Okoye
Katherine Overbo

Diameter - Varies
Length - 25 cm or 10 in
Capacity - 4 liters
or 1 gallon
Rugae - Deep folds in the stomach wall
-The stomach both physically and chemically acts on food.
Stomach Wall
The muscular wall moves and churns food

The mucous membrane protects the stomach wall with mucous from the mucous cells
~ open sores in the wall of the stomach
Gradual disintegration of stomach tissue usually from bacterial infections

Gastric glands
~Gastric refers to the stomach
Gastric glands produce gastric juices.

Gastric juices contain pepsinogen, HCl and mucus.

Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. Parietal cells secret HCl.

Pepsinogen is exposed to HCl becoming pepsin.
Hydrogen Chloride
Gives stomach high acidity
pH level becomes 2
Stomach kills bacteria in food
Does not digest food
Breaks down meat connective tissue
Food leaves the stomach as a thick soupy liquid, Chyme.
~covers the abdominal wall and organs
Lesser omentum - between stomach and liver

Greater omentum - apron for intestines
contains fat for insulation and cushion
contains macrophages to rid body of pathogens
~A muscular sac below the liver
Stores extra bile that exits through the cystic duct when needed
Bile salts
carry out emulsification.
-break up fat for enzymes
-enhance fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin absorption
~ Effects of Aging ~
Cholesterol leaves bile and forms crystals known as gallstones.
The Liver
Largest organ in the body
Made up of an left and right lobe separated by a ligament.
Liver contains Kupffer cells attached to the the lining of hepatic sinusoids. Kupffer cells removes pathogens and debris
The portal triads include the bile duct, a branch of the hepatic artery and of the hepatic portal vein. The bile duct takes bile away from liver. The artery brings O2 rich blood to the liver and the vein transport nutrients from the intestines.
The Liver
The liver has many jobs with it being the largest organ in our body. It removes nutrients to keep blood regulated. The liver removes and stores iron and vitamins as well as makes plasma proteins from amino acids. The liver also maintains the blood glucose level and keeps a healthy supply of glycogen.
The liver is also where urea is created, Urea is a nitrogenous waste product that is excreted through the kidneys. The liver also produces bile, which is an digestive enzyme that is broken down blood. Bile is stored in the gallbladder
Liver Disorders
Jaundice is a yellowish tint given to the skin and whites of eyes when there is a liver ailment. It is caused by a deposit of bilirubin. Severe jaundice can result in blocked bile ducts.
Cirrhosis is usually a disease caused by excessive drinking. It results in the liver becoming fatty and results in the liver not being able to repair itself as effectively. The usual fix is to get a transplant.
food and air passages cross here
palatine and pharyngeal tonsils are embedded in the mucous membrane of the pharynx
also known as the oral cavity
receives food and starts digestion processes
a reflex action that occurs automatically
in the
Digestive System

Mouth Disease and Effects of Aging
Gum disease is more likely as we age.
Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Reproductive System
Small Intestine
~ extends from the pyloric valve of the stomach to ileocecal valve
Regions of the Small Intestine
Wall of the
Small Intestine
surface area of the small intestine is supposedly the length of a tennis court

3 features that contribute to surface area:
1) Circular folds
2) Villi
3) Microvilli
Function of the
Small Intestine
digestion all foods
absorption of nutrients
ducts from gallbladder and pancreas join to form one duct that enters duodenum
Large Intestine Pt. 2
Transverse Colon

Diseases of Large Intestine
Descending Colon
This is the inflammation the small intestine which can be caused by Crohn's disease, certain medications, and radiation therapy
Pancreatic Juice
contains sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes
Pancreatic amylase: digest starch
Trypsin:digests protein
Lipase: digests fat
~ lies within the abdominal cavity
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas.
This disease is associated with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
Pancreatic Insufficiency
defined as body weight 20% or more the ideal weight for a person's height
28% of women and 10% of men in the United States
obesity is caused by a combination of hormonal, metabolic, and social factors
Bulimia Nervosa
also known as binge eating
eating to excess then purging themselves with vomiting or use of a laxative.
blood composition can be altered and can lead to inflammation of pharynx and esophagus
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating Disorders
Digestive system distributes calcium and nutrients to maintain bone health.
losing weight due to a very restrictive diet such as distance runners, wrestlers, and dancers
person may have all the symptoms of starvation and can be fatal
Bones such as your hyoid help protect organs like the esophagus.
Liver metabolizes lactic acid and provides glucose for muscle activity
Smooth muscles contract organs to aid digestion.
Nutrients from digestive tract help keep the nervous system healthy. It repairs and maintains neurons and neuroglia.
Brain controls nerves that control involuntary action and digestive tract movement.
The digestive system provides nutrients for blood and aid in plasma creation. It also destroys old red blood cells. The blood vessels are a way of transportation for nutrients. Blood is also vital for proper organ function.
The mouth and pharynx are organs of the digestive system that make breathing possible. Gas exchange in lungs provide oxygen to blood for nutrient transportation
The connection between the two is simple. When a woman is pregnant the proper nutrients are carried to the placenta for healthy development. It also aids in keeping the reproductive organs healthy.
Large Intestine
(Ascending Colon)

The large intestine is made up of the cecum, colon, and rectum.
The large intestine is 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long. It is responsible for absorbing water, vitamins and salt.
The cecum includes the appendix which fights off infection.
The ascending colon is the first part and is beneath the liver.
The large intestine is the area where used nutrients become solid feces. The feces is made up of bacteria and fiber. The transverse colon is the middle of the intestine.
FUN FACT: Small amounts of E. Coli live in the large intestine
Polyps are growths in the lining of the intestine. Polyps often help doctor detect colon cancer in the early stages. There are also benign polyps which pose no threat they just have to be popped.
Diarrhea and constipation are similar because they both involve an overproduction of feces. Diarrhea or the runs is when fecal matter is constantly leaving your system involuntary. Constipation is a buildup to a point where your are "blocked" and have problems releasing feces.
The rectum can also be called the anal canal. It is one of the few areas where material can be excreted from the body. The matter released from here is usually in a solid form. The rectum ends at the anus.
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