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SPEECH MODELS OF COMM
Transcript of SPEECH MODELS OF COMM
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION
Joseph Luft and Harry Inghram created Joseph and Harry's Window of Self-Disclosure
1) OPEN COMMUNICATION: What is known to self and known to others
2) HIDDEN COMMUNICATION: What is known to self but not known to others
3) BLIND COMMUNICATION: What is known to others but not known to self
4) UNKNOWN COMMUNICATION: What is not known by others and not known to self
Why is it important to understand Johari's Window and apply it to communication?
ARISTOTLE'S RHETORICAL CANON
1) ETHOS - The speaker's reputation and character and its influence on communication (Credibility)
2) PATHOS - Emotional appeal, information that is highly emotionally charged.
3) LOGOS - The logical, factual information included in communication
ALAN MONROE'S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE
1) ATTENTION: Arouse the attention of the audience!
2) NEED: Qualify and quantify the need. ASK: Why is this important?
* Create audience involvement
3) SATISFACTION: Show how the need can be satisfied
4) VISUALIZATION: Create audience involvement in experiencing, visualizing the results and the problem being solved
5) ACTION: Call audience to action! Give them specific steps of action! GO, DO
AVOID THESE 8 DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow - (April 1, 1908 - June 8, 1970)
- American Psychologist and professor at Brandeis U, Brooklyn College, and Columbia U.
Hierarchy of Needs:
1. Physiological : Food, air, water, waste elimination (physical)
How do our physical needs impact communication?
2. Safety: Need for security, freedom from harm and fear, protected by laws
How does your desire for safety impact your ability to communicate?
3. Belonging and Love: Desire to be accepted by others, to receive love and attention from one's family and friends
What do you do to seek the affection of others? Whose affection is most important to you?
4. Self-esteem: Your view of personal competency, reputation, status or prestige.
We all like to be valued and admired? What do you most value or admire about yourself?
5. Self-Actualization: The need for self-fulfillment, creativity, imagination, and originality
How does your desire to achieve success impact your ability to communicate?
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., "People do not get along because they fear each other. People fear each other because they do not know each other. They do not know each other because they have not properly communicated."
John Baldwin, "Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced."
George Cecil, "Behold the turtle, who makes progress only when he sticks his neck out."
* OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
1. Verbal Aggression: overt language to cover up or distract from the reality of the situation
2. Rationalization: cover up the truth with excuses
3. Compensation: change the subject or cover up the fact that you do not know
4. Regression: Withdrawal as a way of control.
5. Apathy: Non-committed, not caring
6. Repression: Bury feelings, pretend things did not happen
7. Displacement: Projecting your anger to someone or something unrelated to problem
8. Projection: Project your attitude onto someone elses motives
(David K. Berlo)
The Process of Communication
SOURCE: Origin of Communication - skills, attitude, knowledge, social system, cultural belief system.
MESSAGE: Content - treatment, code, elements, structure and organizational pattern.
CHANNEL: Our Senses - Seeing, Hearing, Touching, Smelling, Tasting
RECEIVER: Recipient of message - skills, attitude, knowledge, social system, cultural belief system
What do you infer from the similarities between Source & Receiver?
Claim: Statement, conclusion, thesis, assertion that you want audience to accept
Evidence: Data or information used to make the claim acceptable or believable.
Warrant: The connector between the claim and the evidence (justification)
Backing for Warrant: Back up or support information for warrant
(Defend justification by giving additional support for the claim by answering questions related to the claim).
Qualifier: Limits to the claim and demonstrates that claim may not be true 100% of the time.
Rebuttal: This gives substance to or a reason for the qualifier.
Explain why X will probably occur or how Y will happen in the future.
TOULMIN MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
For Advocacy & Argumentation
by Stephen Toulmin