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Book Presentation

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Jennifer Yales

on 7 June 2015

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Transcript of Book Presentation

Chapter 2
Closing the
Opportunity Gap

Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 3 Educationalizing the Welfare State and Privatizing Education: The Evolution of Social Policy since the New Deal

Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14 - The Cumulative Costs of the Opportunity Gap
It would bring social benefits if the opportunity gap were reduced.
Education develops human capital.
Behaviors, knowledge and skills that make individuals more productive.
There are both moral and economic reasons to reduce the opportunity gap.
Over a person's lifetime, a college graduate earns approximately four times that of a high school dropout.
There is a strong relationship between education and health behaviors and health status.
People with more education pay greater taxes and significantly lower government expenditures on their behalf.
The opportunity gap is inconsistent with a just and democratic society.
Chapter 15- Enhancing a Nation's Democracy through Equitable Schools
Public education in the U.S. is not fulfilling its promise of equal educational opportunities for all students.
While education is important it is not the sole cause or solution for tackling the problems associated with social inequalities related to race, ethnicity and socio-economic status.
"Citizens with lower or moderate incomes speak with a whisper that is lost to the ears of inattentive government officials, while the advantaged roar with clarity and consistency that policy makers readily hear and routinely follow."
Higher levels of formal education lead to greater political understanding, skills, and civic participation.
Chapter 16 - Building Opportunities to Achieve
"Some groups of students must run in the proverbial race of academic and economic success in lanes replete with hurdles,pot-holes, and broken glass, while for others the lanes are unobstructed, well-paved, and smooth."
"American education is perfectly un-American as long as these deep inequalities exist."
Opportunity gaps affect all of us and continue the boundaries already in place.
"Dare we be bold enough to act differently and give all American Children even chances to succeed?"
Tracking, Segregation and the Opportunity Gap
What We Know and Why It Matters
Karolyn Tyson

Curriculum tracking
-the practice of separating students for instruction based on measures of their achievement or perceived ability

While many see it as a HUGE obstacle to achieving educational equity...it has not received the attention outside academic circles.
Meeting the Needs of Language Minorities
Dr. Patricia Gandara
23.7% of students in US public schools is an immigrant or the child of immigrants. Most come from homes in which a language other than English is spoken. (Carter & Welner, 2011)
The majority of EL students are taught all their subjects in a language they are in the process of learning. Instruction is typically modified so that the content students receive is not the same as what their English-speaking peers receive. The gaps in instruction continues to grow as students move from grade to grade.
Current language-education policies are squandering an asset! A student who has the potential to be bilingual/biliterate is being turned into a deficit, rather than an asset!
poor health care
poor nutrition
isolated/risky neighborhoods
overstressed/worked parents

They are our future
EL's form the near-majority of students
entering kindergarten.
We must view them as assets and build
on how we can integrate them into the
mainstream of American life.
Fundamental issues of poverty and marginalization
Patricia Gandara
provide ALL students with opportunities to learn a high level curriculum
proper supports put in place
raise standards and expectations
Success = Concomitant changes in instructional methods and in the beliefs and dispositions of school and district admiistrators, teachers, and other adults
Intelligence is NOT fixed!

Inequality and School Resources
Opportunity Gap: the cumulative differences in access to key educational resources that support learning at home and at school
Expert teachers, personalized attention, high quality curriculum opportunities, good educational materials, etc.
by Linda Darling-Hammond
Institutionally sanctioned discrimintation in ACCESS to education is as old as the United States
Illegal to teach enslaved persons to read
African American denied public schools
Native Americans denied education
Public school inequities drive from inequities in funding inequities in the United States
Disparities between states in per pupil expenditures
Do not favor the districts serving the highest-need students
Explaining Inequities
There exist an assumption that inequality has been
eliminated from public education.
Achievement Gap Starts Early- Pre-School Can Help
Differences in student achievement is evident at an early age.
Factors that influence achievement: family behavior, language, health and welfare.
Early childhood programs helps close opportunity gap and close achievement gap.
However, studies reveal that not all preschools are effective (low income v. wealth).
Currently, 11 states have no preschool program

FOUR Major resource-linked factors associated account for unequal and inadequate educational outcomes in the USA
High level of childhood poverty coupled with the low level of social supports for low-income children's health and welfare, including their early learning opportunties.
The unequal allocation of school resources , which is made politically easier by the increasing resegregation of schools.
Inadequate systems for providing high-quality teacheres and teaching to all children in all communities
Rationing of high-quality curriculum through tracking and interschool disparities
High level of childhood poverty coupled with the low level of social supports for low-income children's health and welfare, including their early learning opportunities.
Housing Segregation Produces Unequal Schools CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS
Inequality On The Map
Schools, Housing, and Civil Rights
What Can Be Done?

The unequal allocation of school resources , which is made politically easier by the increasing resegregation of schools.
California Early Education Funding
Title 1 federal funding for childcare and pre-school
District operate as a site or as a district.
Targets students based on parent income.
Headstart, Options
Ending School Choice Segregation and Fostering Positive Choice Systems

How Common Standards and Standardized Testing Widens The Opportunity Gap
In the United States, testing is used to h
old educators accountable for student learning.
Decrease overall education because teachers are teaching to the test.
Deprives students from educational opportunities.
Sanctions for school and districts that do not meet proficiency.
Some education policies carry real risks of side effects and complication.
Is Common Core for all groups of students?
Inadequate systems for providing high-quality teachers and teaching to all children in all communities
Rationing of high-quality curriculum through tracking and interschool disparities
U.S. has highest poverty rates for children among industrialized nations
U.S. provides fewer social supports for children's well-being
U.S. provides fewer resources for children's education
One in four U.S. children live in poverty - more than twice those in European countries
Our country has weaker safety net for children - where other countries have universal health care, housing subsidies and high-quality childcare
Other countries schools can focus on providing an education rather than lunch/breakfast, health case, housing or deal with mobility
Unequal access to learning opportunities before children enter school
Although this is on the rise, it is still disproportionate for minority children
At the turn of the 21st Century, the level of segregation in the US schools stood almost exactly where we were 30 years ago
No longer able to use race as a factor in school assignments
"Concentrated poverty" = constellation of mutually reinforcing socioeconomic inequalities that affect schooling.
Deepening segregation is closely tied to dwindling resources.
Schools emerging serving exclusively students of color in low-income communities - fewer resources, overcrowding, poor texts, etc.
Funding tied to taxpayers "pulled out from under state education funding"
Differences in resources = differences in outcomes
Difference in funding AND differences in resources
Even more important that buildings or books are the teachers who are supporting and teaching our students
Inexperienced and unprepared teachers (i.e. emergency credentials) lowered the standard of teachers and filled classrooms in high minority and low income schools
Legal challenges arose like in LAUSD
In 2001, CA most intensely minority schools were often more than five times as likely to have uncertified teachers than predominately white schools
Substitutes teaching schools to save money
Teacher qualifications have a very large effect on student achievement
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 to ensure "highly qualified teachers" HOWEVER at the same time the law encouraged states to expand alternative certification programs to get teachers into schools without completing programs and requirements and counting them as "highly qualified"
Myth #1: Too few talented individuals enter teaching, primarily because certification barriers discourage them from becoming classroom teachers.
--Low salaries and poor working conditions are the factors that dissuade potential teachers
Dispelling Myths, Facing Evidence, and Pursuing the Right Strategies
Good Schools and Teachers for All Students
Barnett Berry

Debt vs. Deficit

Once Upon a Time

Follow the Money

Give us the Ballot

Do unto others

What can be done to fix our Schools?
Myth #2: Teacher preparation and experience matter little for student achievement, whatever needs to be learned about teaching can be quickly picked up on the job.
"Stark differences in courses, curriculum programs, materials and equipment, human environment" in schools predominately white
Schools allocate different learning opportunities to different students
"Sorting" begins as early as kindergarten - remedial or gifted and talented programs
Schools vary in class offerings depending on where you go (wealthy v. poor)
"Bottom heavy" offerings for schools with more students of color - that is, they have fewer academic and college prep classes and more remedial and vocational courses training students for low status occupations
Tracking students tend to be "color coded"
--Beginning teachers with more extensive clinical training produced higher student achievement gains

--More experienced, expert teachers know more than novices, organize the content better, have more developed teaching strategies, design varied lessons for different students, and can apply their knowledge in novel and creative ways

--More experienced teachers are able to overcome some of the stressful working conditions better

--Stability in staffing is needed to maintain long-term school improvement
Money Makes a Difference
More money is needed to achieve equivalent outcomes in high-cost locations with high-need students.
US has the lowest levels of intergenerational social mobility and highest level of parental SES influence on student achievement and later earnings.

Focus on disparities on student achievement not on disparities of opportunities.

African-American & Latino students are embedded in "school-to-prison" pipeline

Opportunity and achievement are very different goals.
Policy attempts to solve problem on cheap side instead of investing in key community needs and classroom resources.

does not equal
Schools need to be part of the larger picture - culturally responsive
Chapter 1
Myth #3: The key to improving schools is to eradicate tenure and remove incompetent teachers.

Better-qualified teachers who are paid competitive salaries
Smaller class sizes
Smaller redesigned schools with advisers
Planning time for teaching teams
Myth #4: Sound business principles should be applied to education, and merit pay is key to motivating teachers.

Merit pay has not had significant or long-lasting impact on student achievement or teachers’ job satisfaction

Teachers feel it is unfair because of an over-reliance on test scores or lack of clarity in terms of how the payouts were determined

Only 16-30% of American workers receive merit pay (usually in sales or service industries)

Myth #5: Charter schools, by forcing traditional educators to compete for students and funding,
have become key levers for school improvement.

--Currently serve about 3.5% of public school children typically with fewer ELs and SWDs and
--perform the same or worse than most public schools
--Some annual teacher turnover rates of 80%

Money well spend does make a difference. Equalizing access to resources creates the possibility that all students will receive what SHOULD be their birthright: a genuine opportunity to learn.
Strategy #1: Seriously prepare teachers for the realities of teaching.

Strategy #2: Develop standards for new teachers, moving away from the long-standing policy of allowing underprepared teachers to teach independently, often in disadvantaged communities.

Strategy #3: Pay teachers as professionals, with a premium for spreading their expertise to their colleagues.

Strategy #4: Connect teacher teams to other support providers that serve students and families.

Why Children from Lower Socioeconomic Classes, on Average, Have Lower Academic Achievement Than Middle-Class Children
by Richard Rothstein
Describes how social class characteristics operate to produce differences in achievement.
When lower social class characteristics are highly concentrated in particular neighborhoods, achievement is depressed.
Claims/accusations that merely discussing relationship between social class and achievement amounts to making excuses
Finally, recommends practical programs to help narrow the achievement gap
Socioeconomic Disadvantage Depresses Academic Achievement
Many manifestations of class have important implications for learning:
Health - lower-income children have greater exposure to health risks, inadequate pediatric care, etc.
Lack of affordable house - high turnover rate of students
Parents tend to have less education
Different styles of child rearing - different expectations. Based on different factors and can lead to more narrow experiences
Individually these social class differences might not be as significant but when combined explain much of the achievement gap
Concentrating Disadvantage
Negative effects of lower class status are exacerbated when large number of disadvantaged students are concentrated in particular schools.
Not realistic to think that poorly performing schools can be "turned around" if segregation and childhood experiences are not addressed (health, housing, economic security, etc.)
Orders of integration were associated with declining Black dropout rates and a decrease in arrests and homicide
Living in poor neighborhoods is an indicator of teenage pregnacy and drop out of high school
Chicago offers Section 8 vouchers for public housing to move to predominately white neighborhoods. Evidence showed a decrease in drop out rates and increase in college attendance.
Distorting Disadvantage
There is a belief that calling attention to how socioeconomic disadvantage affects achievement places blame on the victim and lets schools off the hook.
Teachers might simply give up because their efforts alone won't help the students.
We have an obligation to analyze social problems in order to design an effective solution.
Educators have a voice and should use it!
Calling attention to these conditions is not racist. But ignoring them and insisting that they have no effect if teaching is competent may well be.
"When a disadvantaged population is isolated in high-poverty, high crime areas with few employment opportunities and little to no interaction with those living and working outside, it is inevitable that characteristics will develop that present obstacles to succeed in the mainstream society and economy."
Greater social and economic equality are essential. Each depends on the other.
The percentage of incompetent teachers is low (10% or less)
The problem is badly trained administrators who lack the skills and tools to assist beginning teachers and are able to distinguish between excellent, acceptable and poor teaching
Creating Stable Integrated Neighborhoods
What is going on?
Organizing concerned citizens and engaging
Making diversity a public and positive goal
Integrating and training staff and leadership
Enforcing the laws against discrimination
Positive housing and school policies
Positive policies from regional, state, and national government institutions
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