Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Social inequalities and Child and Adolescent Mental Health

No description

Michael Fichtner

on 24 November 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Social inequalities and Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Should Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Focus on Reducing social Inequalities for Children, Young People and Families?
4. Risk and protective factors
Examples: parental employment, parental support networks and neighborhood settings, school and community policies, mass media

Social inequalities and Child and Adolescent Mental Health SV1-SEM1

Unequal distribution of financial assets and material resources (Naidoo & Wills, 2008)
Disparities based on social-defined characteristics (Bell et al, 2013)
Indifferences in social background, employment, education, age, sex, national origin and place of residence (Currie et al, 2012; World Health Organization, 2005)

3. The State of Current Policy
10. Implications for Mental Health

1. What are Social Inequalities

Prominent focus in physical rather than mental health; overlook importance of mental health & well-being
Increasing levels of Government funding cuts for mental health services
Existing services look only at individual and family experiences and miss out wider environmental influences

6. Microsystems and Mesosystems
The factors of an individual’s life that have a direct influence on their day-to-day function, and the subsequent interactions between such factors.
Examples: family relationship and attachment, school and education, neighbourhood, childcare provisions, socioeconomic status linked to family income and debt, parental education and employment, and peer networks.
2. Social Inequalities: Influence on
Mental Health
7. Exosystems
Risk factors are individual or environmental conditions associated with a higher likelihood of poor or negative outcomes
Protective factors inverse the effects of individual or environmental risk factors and enhance the likelihood of positive outcomes
5. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model
(Santrock, 2007)
12. References
8. Macrosystems
9. Chronosystems
Presentation Overview
1 What are Social Inequalities
2 Social Inequalities: Influence on
Mental Health
3 The State of Current Policy
4 Risks and Protective factors
5 An Ecological Model to Explain Mental Health
6 Microsystems and Mesosystems
7 Exosystems
8 Macrosystems
9 Chronosystems
10 Implications for Mental Health Services
11 Conclusion
12 References

11 Conclusion
Macrosystems have no direct influence on a child or young person, however social inequalities at this level can have a profound influence on an individual at other levels of the ecological model.
Examples: poverty, race, housing, welfare support, governmental policy
Mental health services need to focus on the presence and impact of social inequalities within an individual’s life when designing and implementing interventions.
75% of adults who access mental health services already had a diagnosable condition before the age of 18.
Investment in early childhood is the most powerful investment a country can make, with returns over the life course many times the size of the original investment (Siddiqqi et al, 2007).
Interventions should be applied from an early age to support the child and their family and to inhibit the development of maladaptive behaviours that may later result in mental health issues (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2010).
New strategies need to seek to create the conditions that enable and empower individuals to have more control over their health and wellbeing, through the reduction of social inequalities (Gamsu, 2012).
Population wide approaches, such as those currently employed across the UK, are not sensitive enough to meet the needs of equality groups (Goldie et al, 2013).
Exosystems are external to children’s experiences but can have profound, indirect influence on their social and emotional development.

4. Risk and protective factors
A presentation to argue in support of this matter.
Presented by Michael Fichtner, Natassja Jenson-Boon & Vasiliki-Aliki Nikopoulou
(Jessor et al, 1998)
Address social inequalities within the population in order to promote positive mental health and well-being, to prevent mental ill health and to promote recovery.

The interventions should be delivered through a lifelong and societal framework in order to enhance resilience and wellbeing of children and young people (Bell et al, 2013; World Health Organization, 2009).

By improving mental health from a young age, it will be possible to reduce social inequalities, improve physical health and increase qualitiy of life for children, young people and families across the country.
Arnett, G. (2014). What is the state of mental health in England and Wales? The Guardian Online; Retrieved 10 November 2014 from

Bartley, M. (2006). Capability and resilience: beating the odds. London: UCL, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health.

Bell, R., Donkin, A., & Marmot, M. (2013). Tackling structural and social issues to reduce inequalities in children’s outcomes in low- to middle- income countries. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.

Blum, R. (2006). Risk and Protective factors in the lives of Youth: The Evidence Base. Retrieved 19 November 2014 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCY/Resources/395766-1186420121500/YDN4ProtectiveFactors.pdf.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol. 3, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier.

Bronfenbrenner , U. (1986). Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723-742.

Callanm S. (2011). Mental Health: Poverty, Ethnicity and Family Breakdown. The Centre for Social Justice. Retrieved 19 November 2014 from http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/UserStorage/pdf/Pdf%20reports/MentalHealthInterimReport.pdf

Ciccetti, D., & Cohen, D.J. (2006). Development and Psychopathology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., et al (Ed). (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Eamon, M. K. (2001). The effects of poverty on children's socioemotional development: An ecological systems analysis. Social Work, 46(3), 256-266

Fone, D. L., & Dunstan, F. (2006). Mental health, places and people: A multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation. Health and Place, 12(3), 332-344.

Gamsu, M. (2013). Tackling Health Inequalities at a local level lessons from the Kings Fund. Health Inequalities, 2, 8-10‏.

Goldie, I., Dowds, J., O'Sullivan, C., & Mental Health Foundation. (2013). Starting Today; Mental Health and Inequalities (Background Paper 3). London: Mental Health Foundation
Gordon, J. (2006). The Area and Community Components of Children’s Well-being. Children and society, 20, 334-347.

Healthy Christchurch. (2011). Mental Health. Christchurch City Health Profile. Retrieved 18 November from http://www.healthychristchurch.org.nz/media/44649/mentalhealth.pdf

Hertzman, C. (1999). The Biological Embedding of Early Experience and Its Effects on Health in Adulthood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 85-95.

Hostetler, A. J., Desrochers, S., Kopko, K., & Moen, P. (2012; 2011). Marital and family satisfaction as a function of Work–Family demands and community resources: Individual- and couple-level analyses. Journal of Family Issues, 33(3), 316-340.

Jessor, R., Turbin, M. S., & Costa, F. M. (1998). Risk and protection in successful outcomes among disadvantaged adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 2(4), 194-208.

Joint Commissioning Panel for Mental Health. (2013). Guidance for commissioners of child and adolescent mental health services. Retrieved 8 November 2014 from www.jcpmh.info/wp-content/uploads/jcpmh-camhs-guide.pdf

Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S.V., & Almeida-Filho, N. (2002). A glossary for health. Journal of Epidimiology and Community Health, 56(9), 647-652.

Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Ustün, T. B. (2007). Age of onset of mental disorders: A review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(4), 359-364.

Maggi, S., Irwin, L.J., Siddiqi, A., & Hertzman, C. (2010). The social determinants of early child development: An overview. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 46, 627–635.

Marmot, M.G. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives: A Strategic Review of Inequalities in England. London: University College London.

McHale, M.M., Dotterer, A., & Kim, J. (2009). An Ecological Perspective on the Media and Youth Development. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(8), 1186–1203.

McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. The American Psychologist, 53(2), 185-204.

Naidoo, J., & Wills, J. (2008). Health studies: An introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Najman, J. M., Clavarino, A., McGee, T. R., Bor, W., Williams, G. M., & Hayatbakhst, M. R. (2010). Timing and chronicity of family poverty and development of unhealthy behaviours in children: a longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(6), 538-544.

Neal, J.W., & Neal, Z. P. (2013). Nested or networked? Future directions for ecological theory. Social Development, 22(4), 722-732.

Newnes, C., Holmes, G., Dunn, C. (2014). This is madness. A critical look at psychiatry and the future of mental health services. Monmouth, UK: PCCS Books.

Potter, D. (2013). The Social Process Behind Inequalities in Children's Mental Health: Incorporating an Illness Career Framework. Sociology Compass, 7(9), 775-785.

Power, C., Manor, O., Mathhews, S. (1999). The duration and timing of exposure: effects of socioeconomic environment on adult heallth.American. Journal of Public Health, 89, 1059-65

Quin, A., Briggs, H.E., Miller, K.M., & Orellana, E.R. (2014). Social and familial determinants of health: Mediating effects of caregiver mental and physical health on children’s mental health. Children and Youth Services Review, 36, 163- 169.

Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Social Sciences & Medicine, 90, 24-31.

Roberts, M. (2014). Child Mental Health Services ‘Unfit’. Retrieved 9 November 2014 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-29895921

Royal College of Nursing. (2012.) Health inequalities and the social determinants of health. Royal College of Nursing: London

Royal College of Psychiatrists. (2010). No health without public mental health: the case for action. Royal College of Psychiatrists: London.

Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. (2010). Mental health inequalities: Measuring what counts. Retrieved 17 November 2014 from http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/pdfs/mental_health_inequalities_paper.pdf

Santrock, J. W. (2007). Child Development. Eleventh edition. NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Scottish Association for Mental Health. (2014). Worried Sick: Experiences of Poverty and Mental health across Scotland. Retrieved 19 November 2014 from http://www.samh.org.uk/media/417248/deprived_communities_report.pdf

Siddiqi, A., Irwin, L. G., Hertzman, C. (2007b). Total environment assessment model for early child development. The Early Child Development Knowledge Network of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization

Walker, S.P., Wachs, T.D. Grantham-McGregor, S., Blsck, M.M., Nelson, C.A., Huffman, S.L., at all. (2011). Inequality in early Childhood: Risk and protective factors for early child development. The Lancet, 378(9799), 1325-1338.

Williams, L. (2014). Achieving better Mental Health Services by 2020. Department of Health. Retrieved 18 November 2014 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/361648/mental-health-access.pdf

World Health Organization. (2005).Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization. (2009). Mental health, resilience and inequalities. Promoting. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

World Health Organization. (2012). Risks to Mental Health: An Overview of Vulnerabilities and Risk Factors. Retrieved 18 November 2014 from http://www.who.int/mental_health/mhgap/risks_to_mental_health_EN_27_08_12.pdf

Full transcript