Transcript of 1970s Timeline
1970's Transportation Air Travel By 1970, the 727, the picture above is one of the most versatile aircaft of the jet era. It became the fastest-selling commericial jet plane in the world. The first plane to pass the 1,000 sales mark. By the mid-1970's, as many as sixty airlines all over the world were flying this type of plane. The early 1970's was a very triffling time for many airlines. The traffic growth was stagnating even as airlines were introducing additional capacity to carry passengers. The higher fares decreased passenger traffic even more, which resulted in a "bottoming out" in the year 1971. The oil crisis raised airline fares significantly and reduced profits. Fortunately, the most major airlines survived without problems. Operation Frequent Wind: April 29-30, 1975 | Saigon, South Vietnam All throughout this decade, the annual rate of total U.S. air traffic growth slowed down, but there was never a decline in the number of flights. U.S. Military Intervention NVA (North Vietnamese Army) forces begin invading Saigon in the final stages of their offensive: the Ho Chi Minh Campaign (led by Gen. Van Tien Dung). Their objective was to force the surrender of the ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) and conquer all territories that South Vietnam obtained. Rail Travel Congress created the National Railroad Passenger Corporation. The reason for this is to subsidize and oversee the operation of intercity passenger trains. Congress then passed the Regional Reorganization Act of 1973. This act was an attempt to salvage viable freight operations from the bankrupt Penn Central and other lines in the northeast, mid-Atlantic and midwestern regions. In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment which stated that equal rights cannot be denied by the United States or any state no matter what a person's gender is. During the 1970s there were several anti-nuke protests. The amendment was ratifed by 38 of the states, and it took effect two years after the ratification. Congress passed another act called the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Act in 1976. This act provided more specifics for the Conrail acquisitions and set the stage for more comprehensive deregulation of the railroad industry. A notable anti-nuclear alliance was the Clamshell Alliance founded by Paul Gunter, Howie Hawkins, Harvey Wasserman, and Guy Chichester. Its creation was due to President Nixon's "Project Independence," which sought to build 1000 nuclear plants by 2000. Legislations Equal Rights Amendment The United States still had an embassy in Saigon, and their military personnel had already endured a brutal defeat by the Vietcong during the Communists' Tet Offensive and the Battle of Hue (both occurred seven years prior to the Fall of Saigon, in 1968). Car Travel Classic Cars in the 1970's: Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHA was created to set work standards and make the work place a safer environment; if these standards weren't met, fines would be handed out. AMC Buick Cadillac There would be surprised inspections by the U.S Department of Labor to check if a facililty was safe enough to work in. Chevrolet Dodge The U.S. responded to the NVA raid by sending any available aircraft--Hueys, Sea Stallions, and Sea Knights-- to evacuate roughly 3,000 American and South Vietnamese personnel from the U.S. Embassy. Approximately 400 Saigon citizens, however, were unable to be rescued and forced to defend themselves from the Communist invasion. OSHA also created the National Comission of State Workers Compensation Laws, which provided healthcare, improved worker protection, and compulsory coverage. Former president Richard Nixon had already enforced his Vietnamization policy in South Vietnam; this policy involved the slow withdrawal of American troops from their stations in Vietnam and the training of ARVN troops to strengthen their defenses from NVA and VC assaults. Domestic Protests President Gerald Ford was unable to attain further support from the American public for the conflict in Vietnam due to the media revealing the hidden truths about the United States' military policy and government lies. "The Pentagon Papers," documents leaked by former Pentagon staff member Daniel Ellsburg for The New York Times in 1971, caused Americans to continue protesting military involvement in Vietnam. Walter Cronkite, a respected CBS news anchor, would publicize the casualties and heavy losses that American soldiers endured in Southeast Asia; he stated that the war was "unwinnable." With the growing number of American citizens who strongly opposed the United States' involvement in South Vietnam, President Ford was left with only one option: evacuate the remaining American personnel in Saigon. NVA troops and armored cavalry began flooding the streets of Saigon while U.S. Marines and Navy personnel helped evacuate the final groups of Americans and South Vietnamese citizens. Saigon had fallen to the Communists, but the war that the United States had waged in Vietnam for over a decade was finally over. NVA propaganda for Ho Chi Minh Campaign U.S. Embassy Nixon demonstrating his solution to the war: the Vietnamization policy Nixon in Vietnam General Van Tien Dung Daniel Ellsburg Walter Cronkite reporting from South Vietnam An American Huey evacuating Saigon citizens Saigon citizens arriving on the USS Midway in the South China Sea NVA tanks and ground forces capture the U.S. Embassy and conquer Saigon Refugee Act of 1980 The Refugee Act of 1980 created the Refugee Resettlement Program which helped refugees adjust and get economic help as quick as possible after their arrival in America. Culture Music With over 32 number one hit singles and over 18 number one hit albums, Elvis Presley truly was “The King”. On August 16, 1977, The King died. The cause of his death was cardiac arrhythmia. Roe v. Wade (January 23, 1973) Presidential Election of 1972 Refugees who have been granted asylum can apply to be a permanent resident if they have been in the United States for a year. Supreme Court Ruling Nominee- Richard Nixon George McgovernFull transcript
Party- Republican Democratic
Home State- California South Dakota
Running Mate- Spiro Agnew Sargent Shriver
Electoral Vote- 520 17
Popular Vote- 47,168,710 29,173,222 Diplomatic Events The Beatles broke up during this
decade. The reason is because of
their tremendous egos and differences
of the four group members. The
group began to die down after Paul
wrote the song "Yesterday" They
hated the boy band image. John started
getting death threats. It was downhill
from there. Israeli-Egyptian Peace Accord Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on March 26, 1979 Books & Literature It called for and end to hostile activity for both countries and to demilitarize the Sinai. Norma McCorvey, who used Jana Roe as her alias during the Supreme Court case, challenged the Texas state abortion laws; the state's government established criminal punishment for women who committed abortion. Israel gave up the Sinai oil fields, roads, military bases, and settlements, and the two countries also made a permanent international border. During the 1970's, many books that were published had a general theme. The theme was coming from a man's alienation from his spiritual roots. One writer, by the name of John Updike portrayed characters trying to find meaning in a society spiritually meaning in the contemporary world. McCorvey's lawyers, Linda Coffee and Sarah Weddington, argued that the Texas state government's abortion laws violated the 9th and 14th amendments. Ms. McCorvey felt that the state laws invaded her privacy as well. Henry Wade, the DA of Dallas County, TX, was the defendant. Map of the election The woman on the right is one of the strongest literary voices to come in this decade. She's a Nobel Prize and Pulirzer Prize winning American Novelist. Her name is Toni Morrison. She examined the Black American experience like never before. Day of election- November 7th, 1972 Tehran Hostage Crisis Roe v. Wade on The New York Times front headline 52 American citizens were held captive for 444 days. Originally, there were 66, but 6 escaped and 14 more were released. Art & Literature Nixon's Presidency Jimmy Carter issued "Operation Eagle Claw" to rescue the civilians, but it ended up failing. Two aircrafts were destroyed and 8 American servicemen and an Iranian civilian died. The Supreme Court ruling caused American women to become advocates for one of two groups: Pro-Life (those who opposed abortion) and Pro-Choice (those who wanted abortion to be legalized). Jimmy Carter failed to end the crisis; the remaining hostages were set free on the day of Ronald Reagan's inaugural address. The seventies art reflected a slowing and refinement of some of the avant-garde trends prominent in the decade before. Earth, Land, Environmental were popular in this decade. Artists like Michael Heizer, Walter de Maria, Robert Smithson, James Turrel and Alice Aycock were the artists that specialized in Earth Art. 1973-VP Spiro Agnew resigns as part of plea bargain. Gerald Ford is appointed to be the new VP.
-Nixon fires 3 Attorney Generals over Watergate Scandal.
1974- House Judiciary Committee vote to impeach Nixon.
-Nixon steps down, Vice President Ford becomes President. One of Michael Heizer artworks.
Double Negative The Roe v. Wade court decision legalized abortion in the United States in a 7-2 vote. Although the Supreme Court decision was made 38 years ago, abortion remains a topic of debate to this day. Election of 1976 Nominee- Jimmy Carter Gerald Ford
Party- Democratic Republican
Home State- Georgia Michigan
Running Mate- Walter Mondale Bob Dole
Electoral Vote- 297 240
Popular Vote- 40,831,881 39,148,634 Map of the election