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on 26 September 2013

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The perfect present is roughly equivalent to the Spanish present perfect. We will see the differences in the section on applications. Overall, it is a mixture between the present and the past. We used it for past actions that are important in the present.
We use the present perfect for actions that occurred at a particular time is not before now. The specific time is not important. Therefore, we do not often use specific time expressions ("this morning", "yesterday", "last year") with the present perfect. You can use the present perfect with no specific time expressions ("never", "ever", "many times", "for", "since", "already", "yet"). This concept of time is quite specific not difficult to understand, which is why you will find particular uses of the present perfect.
Present perfect is used to describe an experience.
Did not use it for specific actions.

I have never flown in a plane.
(Nunca he volado en un avión.)
He has worked in many different museums.
(Ha trabajado en muchos museos diferentes.)
We have been to Río de Janeiro.
(Hemos ido a Río de Janeiro.)
Grammatical rules

To form the present perfect, we use the auxiliary verb "to have" in the present and the past participle of the verb. For regular verbs, the past participle is the past simple form.

Note: Please note that there are many irregular
verbs past participles in English. Below is a list
of some of the most common irregular
past participles.

Subject + auxiliary verb ("to have") + past participle ...

She's gone to work.
(Ha ido a su trabajo.)
We've been to London.
(Hemos ido a Londres.)
Subject + auxiliary verb ("to have") + "not" + past participle ...

I haven't talked to Peter.
(No he hablado con Peter.)
They haven't learned English.
(No han aprendido inglés.)
Interrogative Sentences
Auxiliary verb ("to have") + subject + past participle ...?

Have you been to London?
(¿Has ido a Londres?)
Has she gone to work? (
¿Ha ido a su trabajo?)
We use the present perfect for a change
in time.

I have become more timid in my old age.
(Me he vuelto más tímido en mi vejez.)
Their English has improved a lot this year.
(Su inglés ha mejorado mucho este año.)
He has learned to be more patient.
(Ha aprendido a ser más paciente.)
Used for success.

Our football team has won the championship three times.
(Nuestro equipo de fútbol ha ganado el campeonato tres veces.)
Dan has finished writing his first novel.
(Dan ha terminado de escribir su primera novela.)
Scientists have succeeded in curing many illnesses.
(Los científicos han tenido éxito en la curación de muchas enfermedades.)
We use the present perfect for actions that have
not yet happened. The use of the present perfect
in these cases indicates that we are still waiting for
action, therefore, often use adverbs "yet" and "still".

The plane hasn't arrived yet.
(El avión no ha llegado todavía.)
Our team still hasn't won a championship.
(Nuestro equipo aún no
ha ganado un campeonato.)
You haven't finished your homework yet?
(¿No has acabado todavía
los deberes?)
Present perfect is used to talk about
actions at different times in the past. The use
of this perfect in these cases indicates that more
actions are possible in the future.

We have spoken several times, but we still can't reach an agreement.

(Hemos hablado varias veces, pero todavía no podemos llegar a un acuerdo.)
Our team has played 4 games so far this year.
(Nuestro equipo ya ha jugado
4 partidos este año.)
I love New York! I have been there 5 times already and I can't wait to go back.
(¡Me encanta Nueva York! Ya he estado allí 5 veces y no puedo esperar
para regresar.)
In general, we use the present perfect
continuous for situations that have started in the
past but still in the present. But as we have seen, there are
some verbs that we can use in continuous time. In these cases,
we use the present perfect.

How long has Michael been in Barcelona?
(¿Cuánto tiempo ha estado Michael en Barcelona?)
I have loved you since the day I met you.
(Te he querido desde el día que te conocí.)
Full transcript