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Phrases and Clauses
Transcript of Phrases and Clauses
Phrases are a group of words without a subject and/or a verb. Phrases typically make sense, but not complete sense.
Participial phrases are verbs that modify a noun or verb. It functions as an adjective, and it adds description to the sentence. If the participle is in present tense, it will typically end in "ed, "en", or "ing". If the participle is in past tense, it will end in "ed". Participial phrases include objects and/or modifiers that complete the thought.
Phrases are groups of words that contain a subject and a verb. Phrases act as a single part of speech.
Ex. 1: Washed with my clothes, my cell phone no longer worked.
Ex. 2: Swimming in the tank, the fish was scared.
Ex. 3. I am really excited for my party, considering all the people that will be there.
Appositive phrases are groups of words that try to emphasize the text. An appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Appositive phrases are used to include details and create sentence variety. Appositive phrases are always set apart from the rest of the sentence. Appositive phrases include the appositive and any modifiers.
Ex. 1: My parrot, who is very colorful, is very loud and squeaky.
Ex. 2: My mother's turtle, who is very quiet, likes to hide in it's shell.
Ex. 3: Pinky's birthday party, which had all pink decorations and sparkles, was a nightmare for her older brother, Leonard.
Ex. 1: The turtle, which was very secretive, always hid in it's shell.
Ex. 2: My mother, who is very overprotective, was always checking over me.
Ex. 3: My phone, which was always breaking, had many issues.
A prepositional phrase is a phrase that will begin with a preposition and will typically end with a noun or a pronoun. A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. A prepositional phrase never includes the subject in a sentence. A prepositional phrase shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. Prepositional phrases add meaning to the nouns and verbs in a sentence.
Independent clauses are clauses that can stand alone
in a sentence. Independent clauses are usually in a
complex sentence. An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb. Independent clauses express a single thought. Independent clauses are almost always simple sentences.
Ex. 1: The girls walked home from school.
Ex. 2: I enjoy sitting by the fireplace and reading.
Ex. 3: My sister and I can hardly wait to see the movie.
Dependent clauses are clauses that cannot stand alone and it needs more words to build a structure. Dependent clauses function as a noun or an adjective. Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses. Dependent clauses function as adjectives. Dependent clauses either begin with a subordinate clause or with a pronoun.
Example of dependent clauses
Ex. 1: That cat that you found belongs to my aunt.
Ex. 2: The town where I was born is on the east coast.
Ex. 3: Where is the ice cream that was in the freezer?
Ex. 1: The woman who dropped her plate, is blaming the chef for overheating it. (Dependent clause is "The woman who dropped her plate")
Ex. 2: I am not cleaning the dishes, unless Charlie helps. (Dependent clause is "Unless Charlie helps")
Ex. 3: If you can give me two reasons, I will allow you to go to the party. (Dependent clause is "If you can give me two reasons")
Simple sentences are sentences that a sentence with only one clause. Simple sentences contain a single subject and predicate. Simple sentences include no dependent clauses. Simple sentences may have a compound subject. Simple sentences are complete sentences, but could use more detail.
Example of simple sentences
Ex. 1: Some students like to study in the mornings.
Ex. 2: My sister jumped on her bed.
Ex. 3: The dog was barking at the squirrel.
Compound sentences are sentences that contain more that one subject and predicate. Compound sentences contain more than one independent clause. Compound sentences include two independent clauses and a conjunction. (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.) The conjunction in a compound sentence is most typically followed by a comma. Compound sentences do not require a dependent clause.
Ex. 1: Katie likes to go ice skating, but Mary likes to go swimming.
Ex. 2: Jake is good at basketball, so he made the team.
Ex. 3: Tony is good at math, and Suzy is good at science.
Complex sentences are sentences that are formed by combining an independent and dependent clause. Complex sentences are made up of two independent clauses and a dependent clause. Complex sentences contain commas after the dependent clause. A complex sentence typically has a simple sentence in it. Complex sentence add details to the sentence.
Example of complex sentences
Ex. 1: After Ryan finished his math test, he was worried that he would fail.
Ex. 2: As I was walking down the street, I listened to my favorite song.
Ex. 3: Although he was said to be extremely loud, I had difficulty understanding him.
thanks for watching our presentation on phrases and clauses! we hope that this helped you learn more about phrases and clauses!
Ex. 1: Around the house.
Ex. 2: Near the dog.
Ex. 3: Under the sink.
By: Anusha Mittal and Namratha Mohan