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Transcript of 5.01 Evolution
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould lived in America. He was born on September 10th, 1941 and he lived until May 20th, 2002. One of his greatest contributions to science is the theory of (punctuated equilibrium), developed with Nile’s Eldredge in 1972 after careful and detailed examination of fossils. This theory proposes that evolution happens in rare instances of rapid branching evolutionary change in between long periods of stability. This is in contrast to the theory of evolutionary gradualism.
Herbert Spencer was born in The United Kingdom. He was born on April 27th, 1820 and he died on December 8, 1903. He has contributed to various fields of knowledge like philosophy, biology, psychology, anthropology and sociology. Spencer wrote a number of books. They are as follows.
1) Social Statics (1850)
2) First Principles (1862).
3) The study of Sociology (1873)
4) The Principles of Sociology in three volumes (1876-96)
5) The Man verses the State (1884) Organic Analogy:
Spencer is popularly known for his treatment of evolution. The evolutionary doctrine was no doubt the foundation of Spencer's sociological theory. However he presented the organic analogy, a secondary doctrine which played a vital role in his thought system. He identified society with a biological organism. In his "Principles of Sociology he observed some similarities between (biological and social organism) society is thus viewed as being essentially analogous to an organism, with its interdependent parts or organs making up the body of society.
Thomas Huxley was born in the United Kingdom. He was born on May 4th, 1825 and he died on June 29th, 1895. Some of his contributions include ‘The Physical Basis of Life’ (1868), and ‘On the Hypothesis that Animals are Automata’ (1874), along with a monograph on Hume (1879) and the Romanes lecture Ethics and Evolution (1893). Huxley is also credited with the invention of the term ‘agnosticism’ to describe his philosophical position: it expresses his attitude towards certain traditional questions without giving any clear delimitation of the frontiers of the knowable. He regards consciousness as a collateral effect of certain physical causes, and only an effect–never also a cause.
Ronald Fisher was born in the United Kingdom but died in Australia. February 18th, 1890 and died on July 29th, 1962. Some of his important discoveries were the analysis of variance technique (ANOVA Eric Weisstein's World of Math) which demonstrates how a restricted number of experiments can be sufficient to devise general laws considering several variables at the same time, extreme value theory Eric Weisstein's World of Math which shows how to predict the most severe possible form of an accident or catastrophe based on past occurrences, and the P-value Eric Weisstein's World of Math which serves as a rigorous numerical measure of the reliability of a data sample as a source of scientific predictions. The general principles of Fisher's theory are exposed in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers, whereas his work The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection presents a mathematical treatment of evolution. In the latter, he proved that even small differences could produce significant changes in the history of species.
heres my lesson for 5.01 Evolution