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Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

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Lynn Warner

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
What are the differences?
Quotations
reproduce a passage word for word
Quotations
When do you use quotations rather than paraphrase?
Paraphrasing
When do you use paraphrasing rather than quotes?
Paraphrases
rephrase a passage in one's own words but retain all, or almost all, of the original ideas, structure, etc.
Summaries
also rephrase a passage in one's own words but retain only the main ideas of the original
for support
to preserve vivid or technical language
to comment on a quotation
to distance yourself from a quotation
paraphrase might alter the statement's meaning
you can't think of any way to say it that works as well as the original
if you paraphrase it might be difficult to tell it isn't your view
Quotation Rules
Quotation is your last choice.
Don't use a quote unless you can't say it in your own words.
Quote infrequently - once a page is plenty in a student paper.
Never end a paragraph with a quote. Never expect a quote to make your point for you.
Never use long quotes (2-3 sentences should be sufficient).
You must always explain how the quote supports your argument or how you disagree with the quote.
Punctuation rules when using quotations
Basic citation of quotations in text using APA style
changing the original can achieve greater clarity for your intended audience
making changes allows you to more neatly fit the paraphrased material into the context of your paper
Paraphrasing can help you understand a difficult passage, which in turn can help you prepare and add clarity to your writing
Summarizing
This is drastically condensing the original passage into a brief statement of its essential details. A paraphrase will be nearly the same length as the original, while a summary will be much shorter.
A good paraphrase...
Problems with paraphrasing
Citing paraphrases in text using APA
When NOT to cite - Common Knowledge
Paraphrasing Exercise
Decide whether the paraphrased passages are acceptable or unacceptable.
Original Passage
A key factor in explaining the sad state of American education can be found in overbureaucratization, which is seen in the compulsion to consolidate our public schools into massive factories and to increase to mammoth size our universities even in underpopulated states. The problem with bureaucracies is that they have to work hard and long to keep from substituting self-serving survival and growth for their original primary objective. Few succeed. Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience. If there is a single stumbling block on the road to the future, it is the bureaucracy as we know it.
Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture, Anchor Publishing, 1977, p. 219
Paraphrase 1
Paraphrase 2
Paraphrase 3
Paraphrase 4
Reference List
Put quotation marks around what is actually quoted only.
For example:
DeVon and Zerwic (2003) state that "healthcare providers and the general public have underestimated a woman's risk for CHD."
Separated quotes have a comma or colon before; integrated quotes have no punctuation before.
When discussing study limitations, DeVon and Zerwic (2003) said, "a larger sample would have detected smaller differences in symptoms and baseline characteristics."
All periods and commas are placed inside terminal quotation marks.
Question marks and exclamation points will be inside if the quotation is itself a question or exclamation.
For short phrases or words integrated into a sentence, no punctuation may be needed.
DeVon and Zerwic (2003) describe their study as an "exploratory, descriptive study" that utilized three instruments.
Surname of author and year of publication
When there is no author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry and the year.
When citing a citation (secondary source), name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
Examples:
According to Mishra and Jackson (1999), the symptoms...
Lloyd-Jones, Larsen, Beiser, and Levy (1999) calculated...(first citation)
Lloyd-Jones et al. (1999) calculate...(subsequent citations)
...on free care ("Study Finds," 2007)...
...Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).
is accurate
is complete
is in your own voice
should make sense by itself
Misunderstanding: writer of paraphrase misunderstands the text
Adding: writer puts his/her own ideas into the text
Guessing: writer only understood part of the material and ignores the part they didn't understand
Common knowledge is information that is known by your audience without their having to look it up.
Know your audience! Common knowledge will vary depending on the intended audience.
The rules are the same as citing quotations (author/title and year).
However, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number when paraphrasing, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
American education is overly bureaucratic. This is manifest in the increasing size of educational institutions, even in small states. Bureaucracies are bad because they tend to work to promote their own survival and growth rather than that of the institution, as was their initial objective. Most bureaucracies fail because they have a conscience or a soul. I believe that bureaucracies are the biggest stumbling block on the road to educational future.
Unacceptable!
This paragraph retains most of the original author's ideas (though not quite accurately), as well as his way of structuring and expressing them. The paraphraser has made no effort to acknowledge the original author, and the use of the expression "I believe" suggests that the ideas in question are the paraphraser's own.
Bureaucratization has proved to be a major stumbling block on the road to our educational future. American institutions have become factories that are more conducive to the growth of bureaucratic procedures than to the growth of the students who attend them. Bureaucracies have to work long and hard to keep from promoting their own survival rather than the educational goals that were their primary objective.
Unacceptable!
This paraphrase retains most of the original author's ideas and several key phrases, although it juggles their order around and rephrases them. The writer has not acknowledged the original author.
Bureaucratization has proved to be a major stumbling block on the road to our educational future. American institutions have become factories that are more conducive to the growth of bureaucratic procedures that to the growth of the students who attended them. This means that, as Edward T. Hall says in his book, Beyond Culture, today's educational institutions "have no soul, no memory, and no conscience."
Unacceptable!
The writer does credit the original author, but only credits him with one of the ideas/phrases used and the writer misrepresents the emphasis of the quoted words.
In his book, Beyond Culture, Edward T. Hall discusses the problems posed by the increasing bureaucratization of American educational institutions. Hall maintains that overbureaucratization is one of the key factors governing the state of education in America today. He points to the tendency of bureaucracies to promote their own growth and survival first and foremost, and observes that few overcome that tendency. He believes that this is responsible for the fact that many public schools bear a closer resemblance to factories than to educational institutions. In Hall's words, "Bureaucracies have no soul, no memory, and no conscience."
Acceptable!
The writer has avoided using too many of Hall's key phrases and clearly attributes his ideas to him without distorting their meaning.
The Christ College of Nursing and Health Sciences. Plagiarism overview. Retrieved from Blackboard.
Paraphrasing Exercise. (2005-2011). Teaching guide for graduate student instructors. University of California Berkeley. Retrieved from http://gsi.berkeley.edu/teachingguide/misconduct/exercise.html
VirginiaLynne. (2012, September 16). How to teach paraphrasing, quotation and summary [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://virginialynne.hubpages.com/hub/Teaching-Quotation-Paraphrase-and-Summary
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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