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CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM: PHILIPPINES COMPARED TO VIETNAM'S CIVI
Transcript of CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM: PHILIPPINES COMPARED TO VIETNAM'S CIVI
GLOBAL CIVIL SERVICE STANDARD
For the past half century the international civil service has been guided by the Standards of Conduct in the International Civil Service prepared in 1954 by the International Civil Service Advisory Board. Although these standards have stood the test of time, an earlier era resonates in some of the content and tone. The onset of a new millennium provided the impetus for the revision of these standards to take into account global changes and to reflect, in more modern ,gender-neutral language, developments and concepts that either did not exist or were of lesser importance in 1954.
The ICSC Framework for Human Resources Management,
approved by the General Assembly in 2000, illustrates the overarching nature of the Standards of Conduct, noting that they are linked to all elements of the Framework, and states that "although organizations' internal cultures may vary, they face similar ethical challenges. Standards for ethical conduct promote common values and define the behaviour and performance expected of international civil servants".
Overview on Global Civil Service Standard
Conflict of interest
Role of the secretariat
Staff management relations
Relations with member States and legislative bodies
Relations with the public
Relations with the media
Use and protection of information
Respect for different customs and culture
Security and safety
Outside employment and activities
Gifts, honours and remuneration from outside sources
The attainment of the standards of conduct for the international civil service requires the highest commitment of all parties. International civil servants must be committed to the values, principles and standards set forth here.
The civil service system in the Philippines was formally established under Public Law No. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Our Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippine Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine Commission.
This was the first integral law on the Philippine bureaucracy, superseding the scattered administrative orders relative to government personnel administration issued since 1900. This Act converted the Bureau of Civil Service into the Civil Service Commission with department status.In 1975, Presidential Decree No. 807 (The Civil Service Decree of the Philippines)
The Civil Service Commission (CSC) is the central personnel agency of the Philippine government.
Under Executive Order No. 292, the Civil Service Commission shall perform the following functions:
Administer and enforce the constitutional and statutory provisions on the merit system for all levels and ranks in the Civil Service;
Prescribe, amend and enforce rules and regulations for carrying into effect the provisions of the Civil Service Laws and other pertinent laws;
Promulgate policies, standards and guidelines for the Civil Service and adopt plans and programs
Formulate policies and regulations for the administration, maintenance and implementation of position classification and compensation and set standards for the establishment, allocation and reallocation of pay scales, classes and positions
Render opinion and rulings on all personnel and other Civil Service matters which shall be binding on all head of departments, offices and agencies and which may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari
Appoint and discipline its officials and employees Control, supervise and coordinate Civil Service examinations.
Prescribe all forms for Civil Service
Declare positions in the Civil Service
Formulate, administer and evaluate programs relative to the development and retention of qualified and competent work force in the public service;
Hear and decide administrative cases instituted
Issues subpoena and subpoena duces tecum
Advise the President on all matters involving personnel management
Take appropriate actions on al appointments and other personnel matters in the Civil Service
Inspect and audit the personnel actions and programs of the departments, agencies, bureaus, offices, local government
Delegate authority for the performance of any functions to departments, agencies and offices
Administer the retirement program of government officials and employees, and accredit government services and evaluate qualification for retirement
Keep and maintain personnel records of all officials and employees in the Civil Service; and
Perform all functions properly belonging to a central personnel agency such as other functions as may be provided by law
VIETNAM'S CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM
As a country in transition from a centrally planned to a market economy it can be said that in-depth discussions about the Vietnamese civil service began only when “Doi moi” started some two decades ago.
Vietnam has a vision to build a democratic, clean, strong and modernised civil service. Since the start of Doi Moi a number of initiatives have been taken to improve the civil service legal framework. The key milestones in developing the legal framework are:
The Ordinance of Cadre and Civil Servants in 1998;
The revision of the Ordinance on Cadre and Civil Servants in 2000 and 2003
The Law on Public Officials and Civil Servants which will come into effect in January 2010
Due to its historical and cultural circumstances there are several unique features that have profoundly impacted on the Vietnamese civil service:
the civil service that developed from a century long colonial period under the French emphasised
Vietnam underwent a long period of central planning
Vietnam is a single party ruling country with the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV)
These 3 features are highly significant, as they underline the development and current status of the civil service system and will continue to have significant impact on how the civil service will develop and operate in the future.
Civil service management in Vietnam is still subject to a number of severe shortcomings such as poor human resource planning, bribes and frauds in recruitment13, inadequate remuneration, unrealistic performance assessment, promotion not based on merit and systemic corruption. Although the reform efforts in the PAR Master Programme have produced some improvements the working environment in Government agencies is not generally characterised by trust, transparency, accountability and effectiveness.
Whilst there have been enormous training and development activities, the current contingent of civil servants is still generally perceived as lacking the necessary competence, work ethics and motivation to meet the requirements of the country’s development.
With regard to the coverage of the civil service, except for the Philippine system which covers the executive, legislative and judicial branches, the civil service systems in other ASEAN countries and most countries in the world cover largely the executive branch of their country‟s government structure. However, the Vietnamese civil service is based on a „cadre‟ system‟ and the newly adopted legislation governing the civil service is still called Law on Public Officials and Civil Servants