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Portugal’s World of Difference: sustainable winemaking from conserving ancestral grape biodiversity

PROWEIN 2015 Wines of Portugal Seminar
by

Antonio Graça

on 1 March 2016

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Transcript of Portugal’s World of Difference: sustainable winemaking from conserving ancestral grape biodiversity

PORTUGAL'S WORLD OF DIFFERENCE
Sustainable winemaking from conserving ancestral grape biodiversity


By Antonio R. Graça - PORVID

Portugal has a wine for every taste and occasion
29 PDOs
14 GIs

Wine types:
. White
. Rosé
. Red

. Dry
. Sweet

. Still
. Sparkling

. Light
. Liqueur
Gains for the wine-lover
Wider choice
Less boredom
More contribution
Better value for money
Main 30 grape varieties used in Portugal from a permitted total of 343

Font size relative to share of planted acreage
75 International varieties
268 Native varieties
= Trousseau
= Tempranillo
= Trebbiano Toscano
= Blauer Portugieser
= Picpoul de Pinet
= Tinta de Mencía
= Palomino Fino
Varietal density
Count of native varieties per 1,000 km2
2,7
0,43
0,42
1,0
0,07
70%
30%
15%
85%
75%
80%
95%
98%
25%
5%
20%
2%
Centers of genetic diversity for the grapevine in Europe
Vitis vinifera L.
Percent numbers show current presence in each area of DNA originated in each center (only in cultivated grapevines)
Arroyo et al., 2006
Intravarietal diversity of productivity for Arinto's
530 genotypes (clones) - (kg/plant); Vila-Maior et al., 1995
Intra-varietal diversity is highest at places where varieties are native
Diversity follows so-called «normal» distributions only for traits that can be quantified
Qualitative traits
Berry colour
Berry shape
Leaf shape
Cane colour
...
Quantitative traits
Productivity
Sugar
Aroma
Acidity
Heat tolerance
...
Diversity measures relative ancestrality
DIVERSITY
ADAPTATION
RESILIENCE
Aragonez / Tempranillo / Tinta Roriz
Diversity informs on center of origin and relative time of migration
Valdepeñas
GRAPEVINE'S INTRAVARIETAL DIVERSITY PIONEER WORK
CONSERVATION OF THE HERITAGE
Pegões
273 ha of State Property leased to PORVID until 2060

110 ha becoming the Native Grapevine Diversity Conservation Centre - a world first

Objectives:
50 000 genotypes
250 native grape varieties
Wild relatives
Varietal side-by-side conservation
Research for new wines
Educational centre for young and old
SOMETHING IS HAPPENING IN PORTUGAL...
CONSERVATION
EVALUATION
SELECTION
RE-SELECTION
KNOWLEDGE
ALVARINHO
ANTÃO VAZ

MOSCATEL GALEGO ROXO
TOURIGA FRANCA
TOURIGA NACIONAL

Alvarinho
Antão Vaz
Touriga Franca
Touriga Nacional
Moscatel Galego Roxo
Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sylvestris
More than 150 sites discovered
Each displaying number and diversity
Probably the largest remaining wild population in West Europe
Genetically related to more than 70% of cultivated varieties
ARINTO
Productivity (kg/plant)
So, how many flavours do you want in your life...?
https://www.facebook.com/porvid.portugal/photos_stream
Natural capital
No transgenics
No artificial breeding
Cultural identity
Heritage preservation
Intangible value
Economic resilience
Fair-trade
Small-holding survival
Conservation through sustainable use
CONTRIBUTION
The diversity of the phenomena of nature is so great and the treasures hidden in the heavens so rich precisely in order that the human mind shall never be lacking in fresh nourishment
Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630)
VIELEN DANK
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