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Low Incidence Disabilities

UHWO SPED-405 Assignment 6

Matt Conlon

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Low Incidence Disabilities

by Matthew Conlon Low Incidence Disabilities In short they are: Autism, Moderate, Severe and Multiple Disabilities, Sensory Disabilities, and Physical, Medical, and Health Disabilities Low Incidence Disabilities: What are they? The human brain, most mysterious of organs, said to contain twenty million volumes worth of information, throne of our consciousness, it has been called an enchanted loom. Severe damage to the brain can result in a wide array of challenges for the unfortunate student all of which mirror many of the conditions above. As many of the accommodations detailed above are designed to address the symptoms rather than the causes they are similarly applicable for a student with a TBI depending on how the trauma is expressed and how that expression impacts the students ability to function and learn. Traumatic Brain Injuries Review Research into low incidence disabilities should lead one to the conclusion that the individuals facing these challenges are, in fact, individuals. As a result it becomes our responsibility as educators to not only cultivate the necessary background knowledge found in our text and on-line but also our experience among those so afflicted so we can prepare our lessons and practices to account for the endless idiosyncrasies we are likely to encounter among this 20% of the student the body. Thoughts Identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner, Autism has been recently expanded to Autism Spectrum Disorders. This condition often presents with the following characteristic difficulties and challenges: Autism Spectrum Disorders This category of disabilities covers intellectual or adaptive behavior deficits that require considerable support for the student to succeed or two or more disabilities that impact their learning in the following ways: Moderate, Sever, and Multiple Disabilities Physical, Medical, and Health Disabilities -Social Difficulties such as eschewing physical contact or eye contact, little or no Theory of Mind
-Communication Challenges, behaviors such as physical assault used rather than speech
-Narrow Range of Interests, sometimes to the exclusion of all else
-Poor Stress Management -Asperger Syndrome is a an Autism Spectrum Disorder given special attention because students often have normal or above average intellectual and language development, however the extreme social difficulties they face due to a narrow range of interests or lack of empathy create additional challenges that may require attention in the classroom. Behavioral Management is accomplished through structured behavioral support using patterns and routines in a positive learning environment as well as optional periods of isolation
Reinforcing appropriate social interaction can also abate the stresses of dealing with others
Alternative Communication Methods such as sign language, or just pointing to pictures can also improve interactions Accommodations Match expectation to instruction, while these students may not be expected to meet the same standards as others in their class that do not face the same challenges continue to place goals before the student and maintain the highest possible standards
Take advantage of in place support systems such as peers, volunteers and others
Collaborate with the family by maintaining open lines of communication, allowing them to be part of the process to insure the goals of the IEP are met
Access Assistive Technology be it to facilitate communication or assist the student in personal movement Accommodations Learning Needs and Rate, the students development can be delayed requiring additional focus on both academic and non academic elements
Maintenance of Skills, more effort may be required to help students with these challenges retain what is learned
Generalization of Learning, or the ability to apply what is learned in one class to another Classroom set up should take into account any mobility issues with wide rows, a seat near the door and ready access to required materials
Strict adherence to an in-class eating schedule, menu and clean up policy can avert issues for allergy sufferers
If possible, coordinating with the family to maintain the presence of a paraprofessional or personal care assistant to attend to personal needs
Address specific issues concerning the needs of the affected student with the class, such as explaining epilepsy
Maintain an open line of communication with the family concerning which responsibilities you are prepared to assume, such as the maintenance and application of an epi-pen in an emergency Accommodations This category of disabilities includes, blindness and hearing impairment. Affected students may face the following challenges: Sensory Impairments Accommodation for students with sensory impairments vary widely depending on the nature of impairment, Accommodation for students with dual sensory impairment can benefit from combinations of any or all of the listed practices that follow... Accommodations This category includes orthopedic impairments (or physical disabilities) caused by injury, illness or genetic predisposition as well as health concerns such as asthma and severe allergies. These students face some of the following challenges: -Reduced Mobility, students my require crutches, wheel chairs or other motive assistance
-Restricted Diet, severe allergies or medication regimens may require particular dietary needs
-Chronic Illness/Fatigue, Students may require more frequent naps and/or be absent often
-Medication Administration (routine and/or emergency in the case of students with Asthma or Severe Allergies)
-Seizures -Blindness is relatively rare, most students with impaired vision have some useable sight and rarely is blindness associated with impaired cognitive function
-Deafness/Hearing Impairment, most students with Hearing Loss are classified as Hard of Hearing meaning they have some useable auditory sense but some are Deaf which means they cannot process auditory information at all (with or without a Hearing Aid)
-Dual Sensory Impairment (or Deaf-Blindness) Classroom organization can place students in areas to optimize the use of their usable vision
Consistent placement of student materials, the teacher's desk and other key areas can help the visually impaired student maintain spatial awareness
Open channels of verbal or tactile communication to compensate for missed facial expressions or physical cues
In class support structures for mobility in and around the classroom such as a guide or rumble line, critical in the event of an emergency evacuation or drill
Assistive technologies such as recording devices, interactive computer elements with speech components Accommodation for the Visually Impaired Accommodations for the Hearing Impaired Classroom organization can be used to optimize the hearing impaired student's useable hearing
Teacher Spatial Awareness can allow the instructor to effectively project their voice (again optimizing useable hearing) as well as insure the student has an opportunity to attempt speech/lip-reading
The use of alternative communication styles such as American Sign Language can offset some of the difficulties when applied effectively
Assistive Technologies and Technological enhancements, incorporating the use of a microphone and PA system such as that seen in my practicum setting, allowing the student time to review lessons in a presentation format similar to this one, or using a real-time text communication system such Instant Messaging or texts Low incidence disabilities: Autism, Moderate, Severe, and Multiple Disabilities, Physical, Medical, and Health Disabilities

Each has a variety of symptoms that may effect not only the academic but also social development of the student.

Accommodations tend toward Organizational (classroom set-up and management), Presentation (instructional methodology), Collaborative (employing support structures such as other professionals, students and student family), and Technological (vast array of Assistive Technologies). Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. Boston ; Munich [u.a.: Pearson Reference
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