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Intermolecular Forces

The intermolecular forces present in different types of substances. South Carolina high school science. Chemistry Standard: C-5 Indicator: C-5.1
by

Joseph McIsaac

on 19 August 2010

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Transcript of Intermolecular Forces

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Intermolecular Interactions
Type of Interacting Substance
1
3
4
5
Non-polar Covalent Molecules
2
Polar Covalent Molecules
Ionic Substances
Metallic Substances
Covalent Network Substances
The interactions between atoms,
molecules, and ions. Can also be
called inter-particle force.
Type of Substance: Non-polar Covalent
Structural Unit: molecule
London Dispersion Forces
Type of Substance: Polar Covalent
Structural Unit: molecule
Dipole-dipole Interaction
Ionic Bonds
Type of Substance: Ionic
Structural Unit: ion
Metallic Bonding
Type of Substance: Metallic
Structural Unit: atom
Covalent Bonds
Type of Substance: Covalent Network
Structural Unit: atom
Hydrogen Bonds
An even stronger dipole-dipole interaction
between molecules containing a hydrogen
atom bonded to either fluorine, oxygen,
or nitrogen atom.
Attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules.
Weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in the electron cloud.
The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound.
The attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons
Atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network that extends throughout the solid.
Weakest intermolecular force. Strength of force increases as number of
electrons involved increases. At STP, hydrogen, fluorine and chlorine are
gases, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid.
Since dipoles are permanent, dipole-dipole forces are stronger than dispersion
forces for molecules with approximately the same mass.

The hydrogen bonds between water molecules are stronger than typical dipole-
dipole interactions because the bond between hydrogen and oxygen is highly polar.
Ionic bonds are relatively strong. The cations and anions form a three
dimensional crystal lattice that requires a large amount of energy to be
broken apart. These crystals are hard, rigid and brittle. Ionic crystals
have high melting and boiling points.
The melting points of metals vary greatly because it does not require a lot of
energy to move the cations past each other (the reason metals are ductile and
malleable). Metals generally have high boiling points because of the energy it
takes to separate the atoms from the groups of cations and electrons.
Covalent network solids are made of atoms interconnected by covalent bonds.
At STP they are generally hard, brittle solids. They are also generally poor
conductors of heat or electricity. These solids also generally have very high
melting points. Examples of covalent network substances are diamond, quartz,
and silicon dioxide.
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