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The Road ahead
Transcript of The Road ahead
- il team di docenti di questa materia
- lo studente di questo materia
- gli obiettivi formativi
- sessioni e appelli
- la prova scritta e la prova orale
- il programma / i testi*
- le lezioni/calendario
- il momento approfondimento topics
- competenze d'uscita
WHO AM I?
A RESEARCHER, A TEACHER, A WOMAN, A GIRL,
A NICE PERSON
identity emerges in interactions through several indexical processes, including:
- overt mention of identity,
- implicatures and presuppositions,
- the use of linguistic structures and systems that are ideologically associated with specific personas and groups
language and the media
rules and standards in new media: (email/text/chat)
rapidity of their usage
leave behind many of the rules of written standard E.
public as participant: members with experience of or interest in the issues / experts with knowledge
EMPHASIZE OUR GOOD PROPERTIES/ACTIONS
MITIGATE OUR BAD PROPERTIES/ACTIONS
LANGUAGE AND AGE
teen agers and young adults DO NOT share the same language and frequently the need intratranslation (stai sciallo/ti lovvo)
to see how important age labels can be, put the following in order:
intelligent woman the old
singer the teenager attractive
dishonest man young the
middle-aged the nurse kind
The Road ahead
Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
Marianna Lya Zummo
Sant'Antonino, II piano
Language, Society and Power:
come la lingua si comporta e si adatta alla società e ai gruppi, come la lingua modifica e/o rivela rapporti di potere.
es: language and age, gender, social class, ethnicity etc.
Linguistics: Fromkin Victoria, Hyams Nina, Rodman Robert, ed. by, An Introduction to Language, 9th ed. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Canada, 2011.
generi e stili testuali
NEW MEDIA DISCOURSE
- USER GENERATED CONTENT
working on contexts
do you use internet in order to get information online?
where do you go? how?
do you trust online information
do online information and opinions change your behaviour?
what do you think are the advantages and disandvantages of the Internet?
what is e-writing style?
NEW MEDIA: UTUBE, VLOG, BLOG, CHAT, FORUMS ETC
Digital technology connects people all over the world and the net has become a place for social engagement. New-media communication is characterized by user-generated content and a different style of communication: communication 2.0 - 3.0
WHAT IS LINGUISTICS?
what exactly is linguistics? and what does a linguist do?
do you speak a lot of languages?
linguistics is the scientific study of language, and many topics are studied under this umbrella term. at the heart of linguistics is the search for language. linguists investigate how people acquire their knowledge about language, how this knowledge interacts with other cognitive processes, how it varies across speakers and geographic regions.
majoring in linguistics means that you will learn about many aspects of human language, including sounds (phonetics, phonology), words (morphology), sentences (syntax), and meaning (semantics). it can involve at how languages change over time (historical lingusitics), how language varies from situation to situation, group to group, and place to place (sociolinguistics), how people use language in context (pragmatics, discourse analysis), how people learn languages (guage acwuisition), and how people process language (psycholinguistics).
work in education;
work as a translator /interpreter/mediator;
work in the publishing industry, technical writer or journalist;
work with dictionaries;
become a consultant on lnaguage in professions such as law or medicine (forensic linguistics);
work for an advertising company;
become an actor or train actors (you may meet Leo Di Caprio and Megan Fox, who knows?)
what is language?
norms vs variables
why should we study a language?
- fight against power
- to study ideology
LINGUISTS AS SPIES:
prescriptions vs descriptions
set the norms vs observation
norms vs rules
I regret to tell yew most greephos news: M. is mort. I no that yew new him (...)
novel: Ella Minnow Pea, Dunn 2001:165
language is a rule-governed system. however linguists do no oblige people to follow the rules like in the law system. linguists point on what makes the comunication possible (see unwords).
English is widely used around the world and there are many variables.
kachru: inner/outer/expanding circle;
standard E/global E/ ESP;
variables such as: class, ethnicity, gender, age that influence the way in which language is used
LANGUAGE IS IDENTITY
IDENTITY is linked to ideology: describing a set of belief and behaviours that are thought of as natural (Rete 4 vs Mtv)
FIND EXAMPLES OF IDEOLOGICAL SQUARE IN THE NEWS COVERAGE
Point to the topic(s)
Example: give an example and explain how/why it is relevant to your point
Explanation: explain how/why your example backs up your point
1) PLAN! ask yourself a question (topic). what is your thesis? what goes against it? evidences?
2) Introduction: about the topic, grab attention, thesis sentence is the last sentence
3) Body paragraph: ideas or experiences related to the thesis. explain in details
4) conclusion(s): the last sentence in your introduction is the first in conclusion. summarize the body paragraphs. offer an evaluation
LINGUISTIC RUIN? LOL!
INSTANT MESSAGING AND TEEN LANGUAGE
age is one of the dimensions on which we construct identities for ourselves and others in society.
four life stages: young children / teenage years/
(young) adultes / elderly
words, phrases and topics most distinguishing subjects:
aged 13 to 18: tomorrow, homework, school
aged 19 to 22: semester, f*ck, classes
aged 23 to 29: at work, office, beer
aged 30 to 65: daughter, kids, son
children: talk about here and now
(that's a pupy. the puppy is in the baket. build me a tower now...+ using 'honey')
a doggie, mummy, daddy, night-night, peek-a-boo
teenagers: Do you speak Amercan?
Movies, California & Prestige
Valleygirl & Surferdude
elderspeak Adjustements: exaggerating words using a sing-song voice, tone; simplifying the lenght and the complexity of the sentence; speaking louder and slowly; limited vocabulary; repeating and paraphrasing; using statements that sound like questions
IS IT HARMFUL?
What Adults Say to Young Children
Expanding the child’s utterance
C Lookit (pointing)
A Uh-huh, it’s a fly.
A What about the fly?
C Eat. Flower.
A What’s he eating?
C mhmm, he’s eating.
Child: (points) Doggie.
Adult: No that’s a HORSIE.
Juliet: romeo u there
Romeo: yo wassup
Juliet: nothin, u?
Romeo: school sucked 2day
Juliet: heard wylander got mad at u
Romeo: what a jerk I usedd purple ink on the sci test, he got pissed he looks like jimminy cricket
Juliet: lol ␣␣
Romeo: going to nicks party
Juliet: cant im grounded
Brain and language
- what is the relationship between brain and language? scientists, philosophers....
- the study of the biological (neural) foundation of language
- based on data from atypical language uses
BRAIN: the surface of the brain is the CORTEX (gray matter), the decision-making organ. The CEREBRAL HEMISHERES are joined by the CORPUS CALLOSUM
the LOCALIZATION of LANGUAGE in the BRAIN
early nineteenth century, GALL : PHRENOLOGY (the study of the bumps in order to determine personality traits) > human language is located under the eyes
1860s BROCA: based on studies on injured people, he determined language is on the left hemisphere
1870s WERNICKE: left hemisphere temporal lobe
BROCA APHASIA*: agrammatic aphasics (lacks articles, pronouns, does not understand passives)
WERNICKE APHASIA*: fluent and good intonation but sentences without meanings
TIP OF THE TONGUE PHENOMENON: word missing
the autonomy of language:
SLI children > only linguistic ability is affected and often only specific aspects of grammar (tense, numbers, etc.)
SAVANTS > superb musicians or calcultators who can't take care of themselves
DICTIONARIES prescribe language, describe language + specialised language(s)
open class words (Bollywood)
closed class words
required by grammar
FINISHED FILES ARE THE
RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC
STUDY COMBINED WITH THE
EXPERIENCE OF YEARS
- count F (6)
if fewer, pay attentiont 'of'. while reading, you don't take care of F in OF.
babies do not use function words. BUT THEY ARE IMPORTANT
MORPHEMES:the minimal unit of meaning
happy vs UNhappy
phone vs phoneme
one morpheme: boy
two morphemes: desire + able
three morphemes: desire+able+ity
sound + meaning unit
ER as a comparative > morpheme
ER as part of the word
RULES OF WORD FORMATION
adjective + ify > verb
verb + cation > noun "uglyfication" doesn't exist
INFLEXIONAL MORPHEMES vs DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES
grammatical function lexical function
-s (she waitS) the form that results from the addition is called "derived word" (desire + able)
bound or free morphemes
affixes: prefixes (pre-judge)
knowing a language means knowing the morphemes of that anguage, the elemental units which constitue the WORDS
lexical gaps: words that respect the rules but do not mean anything:
needlessity (impossible word),
linguisticism (possible but non existing)
SYNTAX: THE SENTENCE PATTERNS OF LANGUAGE
The rules of syntax combine words into sentences:
- English is a SVO language
- it's all about ORDER: your dog chased my cat
my cat chased your dog
- you may never have heard a sentence but your synctatic knowledge tells you that it is grammatical: colorless green ideas run furiously
syntactic categories: noun phrases NP > the child (subject/object + determiner)
verb phrase V > slept (verb + NP/PP)
periphrastical phrase PP > in the park (preposition + NP)
PHRASE STRUCTURE TREES containing semantic catgories
- ambigous sentences may have more than one phrase structure tree
"the boy saw the man with the telescope"
- transformational rules are the relationships bw declaratives and interrogatives, and
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
no one talk in the same way, we have our specific IDIOLECT
- accent: phonological differences caused by one's native language (
- regional dialects;
- lexical differences (lift and elevator)
- syntactical differences (john and mary will eat vs john will eat and mary)
- social dialects: naave, Spanglish, Frenglish, woman and men
grammar & society
grammar translation method: falls into categories: vocabulary, paradigms, grammatical rules
content-based instruction: the language is meaningful to express opinions and learn facts
Children who learn language(s)
Imitation (doesn't work)
Correction and reinforcement (")
: one word for sentence
: 2/3 words, do not follow rules but they have their rules and the crrect word order shows their knowledge of the structure
: bringed /mans > they are acquiring rules
ELIZA and SIRI: how they recognize patterns?
corpus linguistics, spell checkers, google translators
computational forensic linguistics:
interpretation of legal language
language rights and usage
statement analysis (suicide notes)
text authentification (plagiarism)
speaker identification (killers)
THE BIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE
- creative aspects of language use (literature, journalese)
- knowing a language means knowing souns (bus ans sub), words and rules for their combination
the origin of language
- divine gift: Adam can name all things
- the first language: experiments on isolated children who would speak a 'first language'. but languages do not generate from one single source
- language influences our way to see the world or the other way round?
determinism: sapir-whorf > the language determines how we see the world
relativism > people of different lanuages think about the world in different ways
if that were true, people could not translate because they couldn't be able to even think to other things
WHAT WE KNOW:
- wherever human exists, language exists;
- there is no such a thing as 'primitive language';
- languages changes through time;
- languages have slang, taboo words etc...
THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE : SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS
ENTAILMENT: if 'Jack swims slowly' is true than 'Jack swims? is also true > deduction
BUT it works only in one direction: Jack swims slowly > and < Jack swims
IF you use synonims, they entail each other:
Jack postponed the meeting >< Jack put off the meeting (they are always true)
CONTRADICTION (always false) > Jack is dead AND Jack is alive
- the meaning of a word is its REFERENT (the real world object)
BUT people use words without a real world object (unicorn) or two expressions can refer to the same object: Jack, slowly swimmer
- the meaning is the mental image
BUT what does 'every' have as a mental image?
LEXICAL RELATIONS: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms
heal - recuperate fast-slow bear-bare
linguistic context vs situational context
maxims of conversations: quantity >say neither more nor less than required
relevance > be relevant
manner > be brief and clear
quality > do not lie
For sentence to be relevant (I'm sorry you lost the game'), it must be true that you lost the game.
situations that must exist for utterances to be appropriate are called PRESUPPOSITIONS
IMPLICATURES: inferences to satisfy the relevance maxim
A: Smith does not have a girlfriend
B: he goes often to the West End
implicature: a girl must be living on the West End
SPEECH ACTS: say st to do st (and use performative verbs)> I bet you ...; I challenge you....; I dare you....
from the Hippocratic Treatises on the Sacred Disease, written c. 377 b.c.e.:
[The brain is] the messenger of the understanding [and the organ whereby] in an especial manner we acquire wisdom and knowledge.
LOCALIZATION (by Joseph Gall): the different human congnitive habilities are localised in specific parts of the brain
*doctor: Could you tell me what you have been doing in the hospital?
Patient: Yes, sure. Me go, er, uh, P.T. [physical therapy] none o’cot, speech . . . two times . . . read . . . r . . . ripe . . . rike . . . uh write . . . practice . . . get . . . ting . . . better.
D: And have you been going home on weekends?
P: Why, yes . . . Thursday uh . . . uh . . . uh . . . no . . . Friday . . . Bar . . . ba . . . ra . . . wife . . . and oh car . . . drive . . . purpike . . . you know . . . rest . . . and TV.
Broca’s aphasics (also often called agrammatic aphasics) may also have difficulty understanding complex sentences in which comprehension depends exclusively on syntactic structure and where they cannot rely on their real-world knowledge. For example, an agrammatic aphasic may have difficulty knowing who kissed whom in questions like: which girl did the boy kiss?
For example, one patient replied to a question about his health with:
"I felt worse because I can no longer keep in mind from the mind of the minds to keep me from mind and up to the ear which can be to find among ourselves."
Another patient described a fork as “a need for a schedule” and another, when asked about his poor vision, replied, “My wires don’t hire right.”