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The Rise of Islam and Islamis Literature
Transcript of The Rise of Islam and Islamis Literature
Tylyn Hobaugh & Alejandra Delgado-Victoria
The Rise of Islam: Main Idea
-Muhammad and his teachings became the basis of a new religion and community during the seventh century known as Islam (Koran).
-After Muhammad's death, his family continued his political and religious leadership of the Islamic community but not his prophetic office.
-In the mid-eighth century, Baghdad was founded and became the center of a rich, cosmopolitan culture that was nourished with the ablest minds and greatest talents.
-In 1219-1220 the Mongol Chinghis Khan's armies invaded the Islamic Empire in the east and after creating the Mongol dynasties, converted to Islam.
-The Islam world came to be divided between the Ottomans (west), the Safavids (Iran), and the Moghuls (India).
Quran (Koran) Video
Muhammad and followers leave Mecca to Yathrib (Medina)
people in Yathrib accepted Islam
known as the Islamic calendar
Muhammad establishes laws revealed in the Koran and inspired guidance coming to him from God
he was God's messenger
Muhammad and followers return to Mecca
the city accepts him and Islam
the city begins to only worship one God
Muhammad dies and Islamic city accepts his successor (Caliph) named Abu Bakr (father in law)
Muslims enter an area close to Arabia called Sham
comprised of cities of Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Iraq
Muhammad is born
Muslims believe that the Angel Gabriel tells Muhammad that he is God's prophet
Muhammad needs to tell people that there is only one God
Rise of Islam Timeline
Muslims enter Egypt and conquered the Byzantine Army
Byzantine Army evolved from late Roman Empire
Islam begins to spread into North Africa
Iman Ali is killed
ends the rule of the four successors (Caliphs): Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali
Marked the beginning of the Umayyad rule
Muslims enter Spain from the west and India from the west
The Iberian Peninsula is under Islamic control
The Umayyads are taken over by the Abbasids (750-1258) which shifts the power to Baghdad
Baghdad: Islam's great imperior city
Islam continues spreads into Africa including Nigeria
served as a trading post between Northern and Central African regions
European Crusaders take Jerusalem from Muslims
later Muslims will defeat the European Crusaders and take Jerusalem (The Holy Land)
Islam continues to spread in Asia
Muslims interact with Malaysian traders and teach them about Islam
Ottoman state is formed in Anatolia Turkey
1683 CE: Ottoman launched the last great movement of conquest (1003)
expanded across the Bosphorus into the Balkans which would eventually threaten Vienna
Islamic Literature Timeline
The Golden Age of Arabic letters.
(750 C.E.) "The Biography of the Prophet" is written by Ibn Ishaq about Muhammad.
Heyday of Al-Jahiz, the greatest master of Arabic prose literature.
Caliphate of al-Ma'mun, who promotes the translation of Greek philosophy and science into Arabic.
"A Thousand and One Nights may have entered Arabic about this time.
The Samanid court encourages poets and writers in Persia and sponsors a new version of the Shahname
The great age of Arabic oral heroic poetry.
Invention of the love lyric, also called the ghazal (guh-zal').
The golden age od Islamic culture in Spain, which includes the establishment of the first major centers of learning in medieval Europe.
Ferdowsi completes his poetic version of the Shahname.
Attar completes "The Conference of the Birds."
Jalalioddin Rumi composes both his great lyric works and the "Spiritual Couplets."
Sa'di composes the "Bustan and Golestan."
Persian poetry enters a period of gradual transformation and renewal.
-Revelations were received by Muhammad from 610-632 C.E.
-It is thought to not have been created, like God, but to exist for all eternity.
-Cannot be translated and only interpretations of the Koran are used for teaching purposes.
-Is a work that is to be heard and recited, and is more dialogic than narrative.
-The Koran is comprised of verses that are gathered and organized by subject matter into Suras.
-The style of the verses vary enormously, even though the Koran was revealed in a shorter period of time.
-The longer Suras are a mixture of styles-exhortation, evocation, legal prescription, and sage counsel.
-The meaning of the Koran is for all of humanity.
-The opening Sura, The Exordium, is recited by Muslims before every prayer and is inscribed on written documents.
-The story of Joseph, in the Koran, mainly focuses on the general theme of the importance of trusting in divine guidance.
-The story of Noah, emphasis's his prophetic role rather than the ark and salvation of the animals, and teaches that shared belief replaces blood as the strongest bond that unites people.