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Situational Leadership

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Elizabeth Caudill

on 9 September 2012

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Transcript of Situational Leadership

Situational Leadership Elizabeth Caudill Organizational Leadership EDU6244 LEAD
Self Reported
Questionnaire Overview Key thoughts Situational Leadership Theory Developed by Hersey and Blanchard in 1969 based on Reddin's (1967) 3D management style theory
Different situations demand different kinds of leadership
Leaders should adapt their style to the demands of different situations Specifics Composed of both a directive and supportive dimension - Each must be applied appropriately in a given situation
Leaders must evaluate subordinate and asses how competent and committed they are at perform a given task
Subordinate's skills and motivation vary over time, as should leader's styles Situational Leadership II
Model Dynamics of Situational Leadership:
Leadership Style
Development level of subordinates Situational Leadership II Model Leadership Styles Directing Coaching Supporting Delegating Leader focuses communication on goal achievement
Spends smaller amount of time using supportive behaviors
Leader gives instructions about what and how goals are to be achieved
Supervises subordinates and tasks very carefully
S1 High Directive-Low Supportive Focuses communication on both achieving goals and meeting subordinates' socioemotional needs
Leader involves themselves with subordinates by giving encouragement and soliciting input
Leader makes final decisions on the what and how of goal accomplishment
S2 High Directive-High Supportive Does not focus exclusively on goals but uses supportive behavior to bring out the subordinates' skills around the task
Listening, praising, asking for input, and giving feedback
Gives subordinates control of day-to-day decisions
Facilitates problem solving
S3 High Supportive-Low Directive Less task input and social support
Facilitates subordinates' confidence and motivation in reference to the task
Lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification
Lets subordinates take responsibility for completing task in their on way
Refrains from intervening with unnecessary social support
S4 Low Supportive-Low Directive Development Styles Low in Competence and High in Commitment D1 Some Competence and Low Commitment D2 Moderate to High Competence and Lack Commitment D3 High in Competence and High in Commitment D4 Video Activity Identify Leadership Style and Development Level Identify Ele's Development Level Prescribed Leadership S1 Directing - D1
S2 Coaching - D2
S3 Supporting - D3
S4 Delegating - D4 Application Subordinates move forward and backward along the developmental continuum
Leaders must determine where subordinates are on the developmental continuum and adapt their leadership styles to match First- Determine the nature of the situation
Second- adapt leadership style to the prescribed style represented in the SLII model
Demonstrate high degree of flexibility How to be an Effective Leader
with Situational Leadership Situational Leadership and Higher Education Case Study 5.3 Willis Study 60 respondents from two sources: Instructional development divisions in higher education and training departments in industry
Participants completed the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) instrument A Comparison of the Leadership Behaviors of
Instructional Designers in Higher Education and Industry Found more Relationship behavior from Higher Education leaders
More Directive behavior form Industry leaders Industry Leaders found Relationship (supportive) behavior irrelevant and wasteful in Trainings
Higher Education Leaders find that focusing on the individual development is key to educational experiences
Argues that the differences in 'worlds' and environments play a role in the types of behaviors that more common among field leaders Willis, B. (1983). A comparison of the leadership behaviors of instructional designers in higher education and industry. Journal of instructional development, 6(3), 2-5. Strengths and Weaknesses Has stood the test of time
Used in training programs of more than 400 of the Fortune 500 companies
Easy to understand, intuitively sensible, and easily applied in a variety of settings: Work, School, and Family
Prescriptive value
Emphasizes flexibility
Focuses on subordinates' needs
Treat each subordinate differently Strengths Only a few research studies, most not published
Ambiguous conceptualization in the model of subordinates development levels
Does not make clear how levels of development are formed
Fails to account for demographic characteristics
Levels of education were inversely related to Directive Leadership
Does not address group leadership
Questionnaires are constructed to force respondents to describe leadership style in terms of the specific parameters of situaional leadership
Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadertions Weaknesses LEAD Assessment Ramakanth argues that the Situational Leadership theory isn't applicable to service organizations as education institutions. Due to "the main segment of the clientele, the students, though changing fom year to year, is within the organizational location and control. Service Organizations such as a community development organization or family planning organization appear to need different considerations" (Ramakanth, 1988) Applicable? Ramakanth, J. (1988). On the situational leadership theory of hersey and blanchard. Indian journal of industrial relations, 24(1), 1-16. Biased towards Situational Leadership
Self-taken, can be difficult to study due to people's perceptions of themselves
Low Directive - Low Supportive style appears to be seriously under represented (Graeff, 1983)
Ambiguity, difficult to measure Limitations Graeff, C. (1983). The situational leadership theory: A critical view. The academy of management review, 8(2), 285-291. Final Thoughts
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