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Animal Cloning

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Robyn Openshaw

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Animal Cloning

Animal Cloning
Robyn Openshaw
Reyna Pizarro
Kendell Gorder
David Revels
Sources:
Definition:
Relationship to Agriculture:
"Animal Cloning is the process by which an entire organism is reproduced from a single cell taken from the parent organism and in a genetically identical manner. This means the cloned animal is an exact duplicate in every way of its parent; it has the same exact DNA."
Pros:
Cons:
Myths:
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/animal-cloning/
http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/NewsEvents/FDAVeterinarianNewsletter/ucm108131.htm
The main use of clones in agriculture is to produce breeding stock, not food, so that the lines of genetically superior animals can be continued.
http://www.manataka.org/page1033.html
"There are no complications that are unique to cloning;" all of the problems also occur in naturally bred animals.
Large Offspring Syndrome- often times cloned animals are large at birth, posing a risk to both newborn and surrogate mother
Health of Animals:
Myth: Clones are always identical.

Not all clones are identical due to variation in gene expression.
Most cloned animals die before or just after birth
Process of Cloning:
Myth: Offspring of clones are clones, and each generation gets weaker and weaker and has more and more problems.
There is a high rate of birth defects of cloned animals, for example, a cow who ended up with two faces.
A clone and a genetically modified organism
are not
the same thing; a clone is "essentially the identical twin of the genetic donor."
A clone produces offspring by sexual reproduction just like any other animal.
Livestock producers are able to control the outcome of their breeding programs, therefore lowering the chances of a variety of risks.
Desirable characteristics to clone for include:
Disease Resistance
Suitability to Climate
Quality Body Type
Fertility
Market Preference
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Somatic Cell
: Cell from "Genetic Donor"
Typically obtained from routine skin biopsy by a veterinarian, any cell that contains a nucleus and is not a sperm cell or egg cell
Egg Cell
: "Egg Donor"
Collected from a female of the same species, the nucleus is extracted and discarded
The somatic cell is inserted into the egg cell, and then the two are "fused" together with electricity.
The egg is then stimulated which causes it to "activate," beginning the process of cell division
A "
blastocyst
," or early-stage embryo, forms and in a week's time is transferred to the surrogate mother
Consumer Safety
Biological Impact/Concerns
Efficiency and Predictability
Supporters
Opposers
Cloning Uses:
Cloning in Medicine

Drug Production

Reviving Endangered/Extinct Species

Reproducing Deceased Pets

Cloning Livestock

Cloning Humans?
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/
Technology
Bioengineering
edition:
Dairy farmers can predict their herd's productivity ; eliminating marketplace fluctuations
The FDA has concluded that it is safe to consume cloned animals and their offspring.
As the worldwide population rises, it is necessary to develop technologies to increase food production
Even small imbalances in a clone's hormone, protein, or fat levels could compromise the safety of its milk or meat.
Creating herds of cloned animals that have the same genetic composition reduces the diversity of those animals, which could have detrimental effects.
Myth: Clones are different from "normal" animals
Cloning does not change DNA, and clones are not genetically modified animals; cloning is not genetic engineering. A cloned animal is genetically identical to its donor and is like a twin but one born at a later time.
Herds may be more susceptible to disease and less able to withstand an outbreak.
Today's method of cloning, somatic cell nuclear transfer, has been around since 1996, meaning it is still in the process of efficient development and is still expensive.
In the News:
Reyna/Kendell
Robyn
David/Robyn
Kendell
David
Reyna
In Brazil scientist plan to clone a number of endangered species. Jaguar, Maned Wolf, and Black Lion.
West Texas A&M University is ready to create cattle that will produce top quality beef.

Russian and South Korean scientists signed onto a joint research to create a Woolly Mammoth.
Dolly the sheep (1996-2003), the first ever cloned mammal from an adult cell, was an important part of cloning advancement and is now on display in the National Museums Scotland
http://www.nms.ac.uk/our_collections/highlights/dolly_the_sheep.aspx
Differences in telomere length- some cloned animals exhibit longer telomeres than naturally conceived, and some exhibit shorter telomeres than naturally conceived animals
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningrisks/
Religious groups
The EPA
PETA
The Humane Society
Many consumers
The FSA
Compassion in World Farming
Many Farmers/Livestock Breeders
The FDA
Developmental Biologists
The USDA
University Cloning projects
http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/european-group-ethics/docs/food_supply_animal_cloning_ethical_aspects.pdf
Full transcript