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Teacher Presentation: Gifted Students and our Program

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Phillip Durham

on 15 November 2015

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Transcript of Teacher Presentation: Gifted Students and our Program

Gifted Female Needs
"the American Association of University Women (1995) and other researchers report that gifted female students still face inequities, are still not achieving at the expected levels, and are not choosing career options commensurate with their cognitive abilities"(Badolato, 1998, p.32)
High education achievement and high career aspirations need to begin at home
career modeling from the mother and clear expectations from the father (Davis, Rimm, & Seigle, 2011)
Educators need to change the way they think and begin to encourage and support thinking behaviors rather than socail behaviors in females (Badolato, 1998)
Teacher Presentation: Gifted Students and our Program
Underrepresented Populations in Gifted Education
Issues surrounding economically disadvantaged and culturally diverse learners who are gifted and talented
Needs of gifted and talented females, ethnic and racial minorities, and twice exceptional learners
Strategies for behavior management and culturally responsive instruction
Factors that supports success and how you can incorporate these ideas into your practice

Issues Surrounding Culturally Diverse and Economically Disadvantaged Gifted Learners in My District
Lack of support systems
parent and family support groups to help them learn about gifted characteristics and programs available to the student
most school sites and gifted programs do not have a full time counselor on site
Not all gifted students receive appropriately challenging classes
Identification
The IQ/Creativity test is not a sufficient means to identify these populations in our district
We need to use a Mulit-dimensional identification process to find the underrepresented population of gifted students
(Davis, Rimm, & Siegle, 2011)
Issues Continued...
Maintaining ethnic identity in a Caucasian environment/population
Underrepresentation of Females and Minorities in the gifted programs (over a 1.5:1 ratio of boys to girls and a very high asian/caucasion population with low African American, Native American, and Hisanic poluations)
Lack of extracurricular cultural enrichment
Schools/programs need to attend museums, concerts, art galleries, theater, exhibitions to support learning in the classroom
We need to understand the learning style differences
these students prefer kinesthetic and visual modalities (Clark, 2013)
What can we do to meet Needs of Gifted Learners
Help students develop a positive self concept and confidence in themselves and their abilities
Positive and supportive peer and teacher expectations toward achievement
Provide Role Models or Mentors
In school and outside of school
Correct skill deficiencies
encouraging females to take math and science classes
develop a willingness to compete, leadership skills, resilience and assertiveness
(Davis, 2011)

Many individuals who possess exceptional intellectual qualities are overlooked due to masks that hide their abilities.
(Baldwin & Vialle, 1999, p.XI)

Twice Exceptional Learner Needs
"When we keep trying to teach kids in ways that have repeatedly failed, discouragement soon replaces optimism" (Winebrenner, 2003, p.3) therefore we need to teach 2e students the way they learn.
Use of resources to lift all communication barriers
We need to make accommodations in instruction, assessments, homework, challenges (Clark, 2013)
"offer them the same compacting and differentiation opportunities available to other gifted students" (Winebrenner, 2003, p.3)
To identify these students we need to create a portfolio that includes "nomination forms, student product assessment, teacher reports, behavior/interest inventories, and checklists, in addition to test scores" (Morrison & Rizza, 2007, p.61)
Factors that Support Success
Students from higher grades or role models mentoring younger students from the same background, culture, gender, or with the same learning disability
Parent support groups and parent education of gifted students
Creating a positive learning environment that recognizes each gifted learners strengths and abilities and encourages academic achievement
Providing extracurricular enrichment activities to students who would not get those opportunities away from school

(Clark, 2013)
Identifying and understanding individual student needs and strengths to develop those skills
Building support systems
More planning time to make accommodations and modifications in lessons for underrepresented gifted learners
Encouraging females to take more math and science courses
(Davis, Rimm, & Sielge, 2011)
2e
Strategies for Behavior Management and Culturally Responsive Instruction
Recognizing student differences
and learning how to interact and
work with other students is a key
ingredient to success
"Go to Place" - students need a person (mentor or counselor) to go to discuss their intellectual, social, developmental, and safety needs
Integrating more kinesthetic and visual modalities into the lessons
Informational night - educate parents on gifted education, characteristics of the gifted learner, and identification of a gifted learner
Mixed learning teams - requires all group members to work together. Establishes clear expectations, goals, and roles
Strategies Continued...
Teaching students value diversity by enhancing sensitivity and knowledge to different cultures
Jigsaw, round robin, and cooperative learning strategies
Accelerated and/or challenging curriculum with enrichment opportunities
Cluster groups - allowing these students a chance to be the leader of the group mixed of gifted and regular education students
(Davis, Rimm, & Siegle, 2011)
Incorporation Into Your Teaching Practice
References

Acceleration. (2002). Roeper Review, 24(3), 129. Retrieved from http://

search.proquest.com/docview/206697980?accountid=458

Ankrum, J. W., & Bean, R. M. (January 01, 2008). Differentiated Reading Instruction: What

and How. Reading Horizons, 48, 2, 133-146.

Badolato, L. A. (1998). Recognizing & meeting the special needs of gifted females. Gifted

Child Today Magazine, 21(6), 32. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/

docview/203253569?accountid=458

Baldwin, A. Y., & Vialle,W. (1999). The many faces of giftedness: Lifting the masks. Belmont,

CA:Wadsworth.

Brown, R., (1993). School acceleration: What does the research Say? Scope, v8 n2 Dec 1993.

Retrieved from, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED367120.pdf

Brualdi, A. (1998). Gardner's theory. Teacher Librarian, 26(2), 26-28. Retrieved from

http://search.proquest.com/docview/224887873?accountid=458

Clark, B. (2013). Growing up gifted: Developing the potential of children at school and at

home. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon Publishers.

Cole, R. W. (Ed.). (2008). Educating everybody's children: Diverse teaching strategies for

diverse learners. ASCD.

Davis, G. A., Rimm, S. B., & Siegle. D. (2011). Education of the gifted and talented (6th Ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Drummond S., and Brownlee, L., (2014). Enrichment in the classroom: How to accommodate

needs of gifted students in the regular classroom. Retrieved from,

worc.wikispaces.com/file/view/Enrichment+in+the+Classroom.pdf

Eckstein, M. (March 08, 2010). Enrichment 2.0 Gifted and Talented Education for the 21st

Century. Gifted Child Today, 32, 1, 59-63.

Gadzikowski, A. (January 01, 2013). Differentiation strategies for exceptionally bright

children. Yc Young Children, 68, 2, 8-14.

Students and Underachievement
"Cause of underachievement can be found in the personality of the child; in the behavior of the parents or some other home-related problems; or in the classroom, where innapropriate curriculum and instruction are especially problematic" (Clark, 2013, p.272)
As a teacher it is important to look for the signs/characteristics of an underachieving student and address them immediately. These characteristics can range from lacking curiosity, withdrawal, incomplete work, lack of friends, and feeling rejected. (Clark, 2013)
It is the teacher's responsibility to create an environment that is engaging, challenging, addresses the interests of the student, and tackles authentic and meaningful concepts for each child. The student also will benefit from working with their peers with the guidance of the teacher.
(Clark, 2013)
More Issues
Understanding and identifying twice exceptional students
"the true academic potential of these learners may be overshadowed by their disabilities, or on the other hand, the students’ limitations may not be recognized as a consequence of their high achievement" (Willard-Holt, Weber, Morrision, & Horgan, 2013, p.248)
This is important for our district and school in general because we have a few twice exceptional learners at each grade level but how many could we be missing.
(Davis, Rimm, & Siegle, 2011)
Changes in our Identification Process as a Whole
To make sure we are able to identify all of the gifted and talented learners in my district we need to change the way we identify students for the gifted program.
First, all educators should be taught the characteristics of gifted learners and how to recognize and support those learners in their classroom
Next the nominations need to make sure that we are including students from both genders and all of our ethnicity groups appropriately based on their respective population
We need to not only use the IQ/Creativity test but supplement that with a other information and documents to find the students who might be missed by the test.
The other information and documents should include: student behaviors/skills, achievement scores, student work, student interests, and student product assessment.
If students do not reach the cut off mark for test but are close and the other data supports that they might suited for a gifted program then they should be placed on a one year provisional period in the program.
Strategies for Gifted Learners in the Classroom
Recognize and Celebrate
- As educators we need to make sure G/T students realize that it is ok to be different and we should celebrate their differences with them.

Mentorship
- is another way to help students cope with their anxiety and problems. Allowing students to have someone to go to and talk about their problems, ask questions, and relate with, will help reduce their anxieties.

Grouping
- G/T students together throughout the day to share and connect with each other.

Networking
- with other G/T students in different geographical locations.

Problem Solving
- Teaching problem solving skills and using those skills to cope with stress or other problems in their life

(Lamont, 2012)
How can Educators Support Ethnic and
Language-Minority Students
Provide a "scaffolding" that links the academically challenging curriculum to the cultural resources that students bring to school.
Explicitly teach students the culture of the school and seek to maintain students' sense of ethnic cultural pride and identity.
Teachers have developed a bond with their students and cease seeing their students as "the other."
Instruction focuses on students' creation of meaning about content in an interactive and collaborative learning environment.
Teachers communicate high expectations for the success of all students and a belief that all students can succeed.

(Cole, 2008, p.45-46)
Supporting Gifted and Talented Learners in the Classroom
Ongoing Assessments
Teachers should be giving:

Pre-Assessments
to determine students abilities, prior knowledge, and interest before teaching
Formative Assessments
to monitor learning and provide feedback
Summative Assessments
to summarize learning up to a certain point and determine what the students have learned (Riley, 2011)
Differentiation
"Differentiated instruction enhances learning for all students by engaging them in activities that better respond to their particular learning needs, strengths, and preferences" (Heacox, 2012, p.1)
Acceleration and Enrichment
"small-group or independent study should facilitate an in-depth investigation of student-selected and authentic content, processes, and products" (Riley, 2011 p.15) to provide enrichment and acceleration in the regular class room setting
Learning Centers
can also help support gifted and talented
learners in the classroom by providing
choice-driven opportunities for differentiated
content, processes, and products (Riley, 2011)
Supporting Gifted Learners Socially and Emotionally
Creating a
positive
and
supportive
learning environment
"teachers can promote
intrinsic motivation
by instituting flexible deadlines; eliminating overt supervision; creating an environment that is stimulating and safe for
taking risks
,
questioning
, and making choices; and allowing only minimal competition" (Clark, 2013, p.99). This will allow students to feel in
control
of their lives and
responsible
for their choices which can lead to an increase in their success and achievement (Clark, 2013).
Allowing students
choice
Find out what students
interests
are
passions
are and give them the opportunity to learn more about that desire.
Introducing
new
ideas and trying
new
things, looking at things with a
different
view
Placing students together with peers of the
same abilities and interests
Encourage
hands on
activities
Students should be encouraged to
question
ideas, processes, and products
Students should be encouraged and know that it is ok to take
risks
and
fail
(its not a bad thing).
(Clark, 2013)

Enrichment Activities we can Provide for Our Program
More Enrichment Activities
Academic Teams
Allows students from our school to compete against teams from other schools in the district or neighboring districts on a variety of topics. During these competitions students learn about new topics, it increases school pride, and can increase their test taking ability.

Competitions
Students can do competitions that interest them or that display and develop their strengths. We already do the spelling bee and robotics but other examples include geography bees, writing, poster, and art competitions.

Debate and Forensics
Will build confidence and develop skills in a variety of performance categories. This enrichment can provide preparation for multiple careers and develop communication skills.

Problem Solving Programs
We already do Odyssey of the mind but Destination Imagination is another program that uses creative problem solving. In this program teams are given a long term focus activity and instant problem solving tasks. Destination Imagination works on problem solving skills and divergent thinking. Another example is the Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP) which uses creative and critical thinking skills.

Literature Based Programs
Students will develop critical thinking skills, essential reading skills, and listening skills in addition to speaking and writing skills in these programs. Literature circles will have students discuss books they are reading. Students can discuss the books' plot, characters, authors style, authors message, motives, reflection, and the way the book makes connections to their lives.

(Roberts, 2005)
Enrichment Continued...
Leadership Seminars
We can hold seminars for students interested in leadership positions. The seminars are focused on communication, planning, and understanding group dynamics. Students are then given a leadership role and have to work with others to reach a goal.

Send out or pull out services
These services provide students with challenging learning opportunities with peers who have similar interests and abilities.

Simulations
In the classroom we can allow students to learn from being involved in a real life simulation. Simulations could be done of the stock market, government, and the United Nations for students to learn about those areas.
Book Clubs
Our students love to read!! Book Clubs can be organized by interest in specific types of books or a wide range of interests. Allows students to discuss a book, reflect, and reviews books with other students who enjoy reading.

Drama, Music, and Art Opportunities
Allow opportunities for students to develop their interests and talents in these areas through different activities, events, and classes. Art Masterpiece, orchestra, and band, are examples of these opportunities that we currently have. But we could add a drama club or performing arts class, a choir, and an art club since we do not have art as an elective.

Mentorships
A mentor should have expertise that matches the student's interests and can relate to the student and provide a person the student can come to with questions or concerns. Mentors for the younger grades (K-3) could be older students on campus, and students from the nearby College Preparatory Academy could mentor grades (4-6).

Study Groups
An interested adult/teacher gathers students in a small group who share a common interest such as learning a foreign language, creating a literacy circle, or any other topic of interest. We could also have a study group that further develops the Mandarin the students already take as an elective.

Student Initiated Projects
Students create plans about a topic of interest that may impact our school, individuals, or the community.
(Roberts, 2005)
How can we Differentiate
Instruction in the Classroom?
(Roberts, 2005)

"It is our job to support the learning and development of every child, with an understanding that each child has different strengths and needs and each child develops at a unique pace" (Gadzikowski, 2013, p.14)

Creating Flexible Groups
The teacher will create groups based on student abilities and interests. The group is flexible because students may change groups because their abilities and interests change with different topics.
Inquiry Process
"One of the most powerful ways to challenge children to think is to encourage them to ask their own questions and to seek their own answers" (Gadzikowski, 2013, p.9).
Increasing Complexity
Using blooms taxonomy to help define learning objects and promote higher order thinking. Bloom's taxonomy can be used to create a curriculum that meets the needs of every student by using its sex steps that increase thought complexity as you move through the steps. The steps are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.
(Gadzikowski, 2013)
Adapt the pace
set a pace depending on the activity. Faster pace for an activity challenges the students, demands greater expertise, and prevents boredom while maximizing learning. Slowing the pace can also be challenging if the students have to add more depth and detail.
Differentiating the learning environment
how information and materials are presented and organized
offering choices so students are working on something of interest
adapt the materials by adding something, changing something, or taking materials away to challenge the students
Differentiating Instruction
(Gadzikowski, 2013)
Differentiation in a Reading Lesson
What to Know!
Using a variety of grouping formats including whole group, small group, and individual lessons is found to be the most effective.
Most of the instruction should come when students are in the small group setting.
Ongoing assessment is critical in effective differentiation so teachers know what groups to place students and what instruction is needed for each group.
Teachers should observe students' reading skills and strategies in authentic situations, not just isolated drills for assessing their ability and learning.
The Instruction!
"Before and during each lesson teachers must consider the needs of the learners in order to decide which comprehension strategies to stress, how to build and maintain fluency, and which word-level skills and strategies to teach" in the small groups (Ankrum & Bean, 2008, p.143)
The small groups should be based on the instructional reading level of the students with the teacher interacting with the students through scaffolding and coaching.
During whole group instruction teachers can introduce curriculum based, grade level appropriate skills, and strategies to make sure all student receive exposure to that material.
Higher level teaching strategies should be exposed to both the low instructional and high instructional level groups equally.
Individualized instruction can be used to meet the other needs of struggling or accelerated readers in addition to what they receive from the other groups.


(Ankrum & Bean, 2008)

Differentiated Instruction in a Social Studies Lesson
What to Know!
Using Gardner's Multiple Intelligences allow students to do a research project explaining the topic through one of the intelligences to meet their needs and allow students to use their preferred learning style.
The teacher will need to give pre-assessments to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their students and how they prefer to learn. The students will benefit also from knowing this information.
"This individualized evaluation practice will allow a teacher to make more informed decisions on what to teach and how to present information" (Brualdi, 1998, p.26).
The Project
Giving the students choice in how they will present a research project on the Titanic
The students could make a timeline of the important voyage events, draw a map of the voyage, create a play of the events or a mock interview of the captain, create a 3D model of the voyage, write a diary as one of the passengers, analyze the tragedy in light of the Greek myths that have been studied, or analyze scientifically what could have been done to prevent the tragedy (Sherretz, 2011).
Allowing students to choose a method of how they will display their research and knowledge of the topic will allow a wider range of students to successfully participate in classroom learning (Brualdi, 1998).

Enrichment 2.0
Is a online program that we could use at
our school so our students can collaborate with gifted students from neighboring school districts, students in other states, or even other countries.

This program is "based on the enrichment cluster and is an inquiry based learning model where students select a topic, are grouped to work on the topic, and prepare an authentic product or service"(Eckstein, 2009, p.60).

Students in this program are using 21st century skills and tools that we stress at our gifted academy such as wikis, creating and listening to podcasts, creating and viewing video projects and journals, blogs, collaborative documents (google docs), discussion forums, aggregators, and social bookmarking.

(Eckstein, 2009)
What is Enrichment?
"If a student has already mastered an expectation, they should be provided opportunity to extend their knowledge in that area through another activity" (Drummond and Brownlee, 2014, p.2), this is enrichment.

Enrichment can be activity or opportunity within the school or out of school that will give students a challenging learning experience that will improve their abilities to think and learn (Roberts, 2005)

"In order to get the most out of an enrichment opportunity, students must have an interest that is incorporated into the enrichment experience" (Roberts, 2005, p.23).


What is Acceleration
"Acceleration refers to any of a number of curricular and administrative modifications that permit students to reach educational goals at a faster than usual rate or an earlier than usual age" (Acceleration, 2002, p.129)

"Acceleration is a misnomer because the process is really one of bringing gifted youth up to a suitable level of instruction commensurate with their achievement levels and readiness, so that they are properly challenged to learn new material "(Brown, 1993, p. 7).

"Saying that a student has been accelerated, we seem to imply that some process has been employed to speed that student along. The term accelerate in everyday usage means, after all, to speedup .In the real world of schools, however, this is rarely the case. Quite often, acceleration is the administrative recognition of a students' current academic performance. When a student skips a grade, it is because the school realizes that the student has mastered all the knowledge and skills to be taught at the current placement... In practice, the student is rarely "sped along"" (Brown, 1993, p.8).
"The general principle of curriculum differentiation reflects the intent to respond to individual differences known to exist among the students in any classroom"(Kanevsky, 2011, p.279)

Content (the material, knowledge, concept), Process (thinking, problem solving, research), and Product (visual, oral, kinesthetic, or written ways to show what was learned) make up the learning experience (Roberts, 2005).

The content, process, and products can be differentiated to meet the individual needs of each student in the classroom.
What is Differentiation?
Curriculum Programs
There are multiple programs designed to meet the needs of gifted and talented learners. Here are some that could assist our gifted students at our school and in our district.

Schoolwide Enrichment Model

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

Parallel Curriculum Model

Kaplan's Grid

Schoolwide Enrichment Model
Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
This model is broken down into 3 types of enrichment that will "expand student interests and develop their thinking and feeling processes" (Clark, 2013, p.301).
Type 1 is General Exploratory Activities
Type 2 is Group Training Activities
Type 3 is Individual and small group investigations of real world problems



How can this program be implemented?
Teachers determine students interests and learning styles through pre-assessments at the beginning of the year.
Also during the first semester we can provide students with the opportunity to find new interests and be challenged in the classroom through a broad range of activities to meet goals that are planned with your grade level/school teams.
This could be through field trips, events, guest speakers
Promote student interests and develop their skill
This includes thinking skills, communication skills, research skills, methodological and feeling processes
Compacting the general curriculum to allow gifted students the opportunity for Type 3 enrichment projects.
Allow extended opportunities and resources for students who show superior interest and performance during the second semester.
Students create a product to present to an authentic audience

(VanTassel-Baska & Brown, 2007)
Gardner developed the process of intelligence as made up of eight components that help and allow "educators to address multiple expressions of intelligence and ability in the learning process" (Clark, 2013, p.305).
The eight intelligences include:
verbal/linguistic
logical/mathematical
visual/spatial
musical/rhythmic

bodily/kinesthetic
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalistic
How Can it be Implemented?
Since the MI model allows educators to identify student differences we can plan and develop a curriculum and strategies that will help gifted students based off their "intelligences"
This can be done through Grouping based off the MI test to determine students strengths and weaknesses. Once you know the student differences they can be placed into well rounded groups for projects and assignments. The students could also be placed into groups of peers with the same strengths/interests to create accelerated groups for projects, assignments, or study.
Teachers should also allow students to turn in work based on their strengths. For example through a play or demonstration, song, writing, artwork, or in a oral presentation.
A variety of enrichment activities should be provided to allow students the opportunity do develop their intelligences such as field trips, guest speakers, mentorships, musical performances, or self selected projects
The Parallel Curriculum Model
The parallel curriculum model was developed to give teachers a guide for planning and developing appropriate curricula experiences through its four parallels (Clark, 2013).
The four parallels are:
The core curricululm
The curriculum of connections
The curriculum of practice
The curriculum of identity
How can we Implement it?
The first parallel is the same as our Arizona College and Career ready standards (common core) so we can continue to develop students knowledge base, understanding, and their skills.
We need to provide opportunities for students to make connections between disciplines, time periods, locations, 0r cultures extending from our core curriculum. This can be done through passion projects, problem based projects, or other assignments that allow connections to be made.
We will need to extend students skills and understandings through application. This will promote student expertise of a specific discipline. The student will become a knowledge producer instead of knowledge consumer.
Ask more driving questions like: How do the ideas and skills I have learned work in other contexts? or In what other contexts can I use what I have learned?
Educators will provide students projects or assignments in which they need to produce solutions to problems, generate new ideas, and procedures. This is something we already do a lot of through problem based learning in our program.

But to continue their development we also should assist students to think of how a particular discipline relates to their own lives. This allows students to gain self understanding and self definition.
(Tomlinson, 2002)
Kaplan's Grid
Kaplan developed a model that includes and organizes all the components of a differentiated curriculum to allow educators to use "teacher directed lessons or student-centered activities engaged in collaboratively or independently"(Clark, 2013, p.302).
The Grid consists of 3 components, the content, the process, and the products that are all centralized around a theme.

Educators should use a theme instead of a topic for differentiated curriculum. When the larger units of themes are used, "a wide variety of topics and the ability to generalize and see relationships are more available to the learner"(Clark, 2013, p. 302).

We can use this model in a heterogenous class, homogeneous class, or to a small homogeneous group or individual student through our pull-out programs.

Implementation!
Providing a theme such as extinction, effects of a system, power, social justice, humor...
Using content that relates personally, economically, socially, or environmentally to the needs and interests of the student.
Develop students thinking skills, research skills, life skills, and technology skills during instruction of the content.
To develop those skills students should be provided problem solving activities and opportunities to research interests using 21st century skills.
Assessment of their learning of the content and the processes are shown through a product in a written, visual, or oral format using their production skills, various media, and technology.

(Clark, 2013)





(Davis, Rimm, Sielge, 2011)
What does an Effective Gifted Program Need?
Teachers
"Many factors influence the learning of a student, but within the classroom, situation, the teacher is of critical importance" (Clark, 2013, p349). The teachers' behaviors and characteristics are just as important as the practices, materials, and techniques. Teachers need professional development in gifted education to effectively educate our gifted and talented students.
Gifted Coordinator
A coordinator should be appointed to ensure that the gifted program is providing the appropriate services and opportunities to the students. If the coordinator is only part time "it will be difficult to find enough time to develop the personal contacts, the assessment materials, and the type of continuity necessary to deliver a successful program" (Clark, 2013, p.357). Therefore it is imperative to have a full time coordinator to develop and plan an effective gifted program.
Advisory Committee
A committee of teachers, parents, administrators, community representatives, and possible students should be established to develop and implement an effective program plan. This committee needs to be provided in-services to learn new strategies, new data on teaching gifted students, and how to meet the needs of these students.
Support
To meet the needs of gifted programs, support systems need to be in place to advocate for those students. The "support systems must include the teaching faculty, the administration, the parents, and the larger community"(Clark, 2013, p.359).
Assessment and Evaluation
Test scores and performance do show us what the students learned and how effective the teaching is but that should not be the only guides to the success of the program (Clark, 2013). The program should be outlined through its components and then reviewed and evaluated often to ensure its success.
Reflect and Reform
"At every level, the administrator, the coordinator, the teachers, and the support staff must reflect on what is working, what needs to be changed, and what within the program and in their particular responsibilities needs additional time and thought to bring the program closer to the goals" (Clark, 2013, p.381).

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Full transcript