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Copy of Biology 112 Presentation

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Jad A. Rafeh

on 3 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Biology 112 Presentation

Biological Macromolecules
and how we identify them Jad A. Rafeh
Dischane Thompson Glucose Solution Benedict's Test sodium Carbonate,
sodium Citrate
Copper(II) sulfate Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Treatements for
Identification Benedict's Test

Iodine Test

Sudan Stain Applications in the real world Results Glucose Test Strips Experiment 2 Does iodine text for starch? Biological Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Disaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Source of stored energy
Transport stored energy
Carbon skeleton Pentoses Hexoses 5C 6C Ribose, Deoxyribose Structural Isomers
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Mannose Reducing Sugars Monosaccharides or Disaccharides

aldehyde or ketone functional group

1C bonded to 2 O's Benedict's Test and Fehling's solution Polysaccharides Aldehyde Group Disaccharides 2 Monosaccharides

Glycosidic Linkages http://iws.collin.edu/mweis/Images/Models/2401models/cell%20models/cell%20models%20photo/cell_chem_starch_iodine.jpg Hypothesis We believe that iodine will bean affective test for starch. http://willjlindsey.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/thinking-man.jpg Polysaccharides General Proceudure 3 or more Monosaccharides
Glycosidic Linkages
Branching
Cellulose, Glycogen, Starch, Chitin Materials
10ml graduated cylinder
Test tube
Iodine solution
2% Strach
2% Chitin http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/food-glucose.gif
http://schoolworkhelper.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/lipid.gif
http://www.biochem.mpg.de/en/eg/oesterhelt/web_page_list/Struct_dodecin_Hasal/absatz_02_bild.jpg
http://k39.kn3.net/512C3FDB6.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_DvUbyOlnKyQ/S01Gq4jXxLI/AAAAAAAAAmo/JR_xvLWhSbc/s400/Carbohydrates.bmp http://www.azaquar.com/sites/default/files/doc/en_images/chemistry/ca_glucides3.gif http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_AB1PbG5fveg/S9lvs9aO2oI/AAAAAAAAAMw/PwvHj0zzN_w/s1600/glycosidic+bond.jpg
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_02_img0264.jpg Controls http://cdavies.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/glucose-fructose-sucrose.jpg?w=960
http://www.pearsonhighered.com/mathews/MN/MALTOSE.GIF Positive control for Starch solution

Negative for Chitin solution Results Starch Chitin http://campus.udayton.edu/~INSS/Dillon230/LECTHELP-1/3carbohydrates_files/image006.gif
http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/horseshoecrab/research/images/Chitin_molecule2_flat.jpg
http://bioap.wikispaces.com/file/view/polysaccharides-structure.jpeg/163854115/polysaccharides-structure.jpeg Conclusion Iodine reacted with starch and did not react with Chitin. Chain of Iodine Atoms Helicase shaped strach Chain Lipids Fats
Store Energy
Cell Membranes
Hydrophobic https://s3.amazonaws.com/healthtap-public/ht-staging/user_answer/reference_image/8264/large/Lipid.jpeg?1344946334
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7jSC_moz534/UGuqkqsAzoI/AAAAAAAABSc/VMbHiBThaIw/s400/Healthy-fats-2.jpg Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Cholesterol Triglycerides condensation
(dehydration) reaction ester linkages http://www.familyhealthavenue.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/triglyceride-structure.gif
http://medicdaily.co/wp-content/uploads/saturated-fat.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/NCI_butter.jpg
http://thumbs.ifood.tv/files/images/editor/images/Amjad%20Image%201(7).jpg Phospholipids Cell membranes
Amphipatic http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/lipid/P-lipid.gif Hydrophilic Head Hydrophobic Tail Choline Phosphate Glycerol Hydrocarbon Chain Cholesterol Constituent of membranes

Source of steroid hormones http://www.raw-milk-facts.com/images/Cholesterol2.gif
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/images/atherosclerosis_2011.jpg CONCLUSION WE HAVE SEEN THAT THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT MACROMOLECULES WITH DIFFERENT ROLES IN THE BIOLOGICAL WORLD... ... BUT HOW CAN WE IDENTIFY THEM? Blue Cu2+ ions reduced by aldehyde group to Cu+ ions Cu+ ions precipitate as water insoluble red copper(I) oxide Tests for presence
of reducing sugars Iodine Test for Starch Iodine + Water + Potassium Iodide Slips into the coil of starch
(because of alpha 1-4 linkage) Triiodide
Ion Complex = Blue-black colour Sudan IV Stain Sudan Dye has high affinity to lipids Dye stains where it bonds, indicating the presence of lipids In the following experiments, those 3 techniques were used to identify the macromolecules discussed http://www.biodiesel-machine.com/img/allimg/canola-oil.jpg Iodine and Sudan test Experiment 3 http://dir.coolclips.com/clipart/150/vgjm/tf05339/CoolClips_vc089661.jpg Hypothesis Iodine will stain the starch Sudan IV will stain canola oil General Procedure Materials
Iodine solution
Sudan IV stain solution
Canola Oil
2 Test Tube
Para film piece http://www.rsc.org/ejga/LC/2007/b707037c-ga.gif http://blog.sendgrid.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Kid-Scientist.jpg Controls http://rohan7things.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/positive-negative.jpg Results Canola Oil Starch Starch Canola Oil Conclusion Iodine Test Sudan IV Test Iodine and Sudan IV
test on various foods http://img.foodnetwork.com/FOOD/2008/04/13/RB0107_Cheese-Platter_lg.jpg Hypothesis Positive for starch
Postive for fat General Procedure Materials Small sample of food
Razpr blade
Forceps
Perti dishes
70% EtOH
Sudan IV http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-nBDaKGeQQVk/Twu8JqpRU9I/AAAAAAAAAto/Cpmm8ooSyU8/s1600/Basic+Cutting+Techniques.jpg Controls http://www.danlew.com/wp-content/uploads/positive-negative-comments.jpg Results Iodine Potato Cheese Bacon Bread Sudan IV Bread Bacon Cheese Conclusion Analysis of an Unknown
Polysaccharide http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Cellulose-Ibeta-from-xtal-2002-3D-balls.png/250px-Cellulose-Ibeta-from-xtal-2002-3D-balls.png General Procedure Materials Test Tube
Unknow Carbohydrate
Iodine solution
Benedict's solution
Sulfric Acid
Sodium Hydroxide Solution Controls http://www.sogmin.org/Newsletters/2011%20NLs/positive-negative.jpg Experiment 1 "Performing Benedict's test on Glucose and Sucrose" Hypothesis Benedict's test will test: POSITIVE on Glucose,
NEGATIVE on Sucrose Controls Recall what Benedict's test looks for http://umanitoba.ca/Biology/BIOL1020/lab4/images/CarbonylFunctionalGroups.jpg http://drpinna.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/glucose-fructose-and-sucrose.jpg Glucose Sucrose General Procedure Trial 1 With 1% Glucose solution Trial 2 with 1% Sucrose Solution 100 C OBSERVE results http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000JLVcFiqa.CU/s/650/650/Erlenmeyer-Flask-GOR-65017-09.jpghttp://www.andonbrush.com/pipette_2.jpghttp://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/olivierl/olivierl1109/olivierl110900118/10488038-laboratory-pipette-filled-with-cobalt-blue-chemical-solution-and-emerging-drop-of-liquid-over-row-of.jpghttp://www.chem.uiuc.edu/chem103/equilibrium/images/heatEtOHWater.jpg Sucrose Solution Conclusion Analysis As Expected! Conclusion Benedict's Test can be used to identify reducing sugars! Analysis Potato Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Diabetes The Technology Behind Glucose Meters: Test Strips JOACHIM HÖNES, Dr. rer. nat., PETER MÜLLER, Dr. rer. nat., and NIGEL SURRIDGE, Ph.D. What is an NMR Machine? Aligns nuclear spins in a constant magnetic field http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/HWB-NMR_-_900MHz_-_21.2_Tesla.jpg Looks for different resonance peaks at different magnetic strengths http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/carey/student/olc/graphics/carey04oc/ch13/figures/1303.gif Uses? Study molecular profiles of "Real World" substances Screen for diseases in biofluids, and determine their origins AND http://cache.gizmodo.com/assets/images/8/2010/03/mri-scanner.jpg Experiment 1D and 2D NMR analysis Examine Chemical Shifts "Finger prints of molecules" Due to magnetic moment (nuclear spin) of nuclei detected and processed unique to each molecule Methods http://www.matthewwebber.co.uk/red-bull-logo.jpg http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/medium/prodimages/n/nors5200qtz7.jpg
http://media.onsugar.com/files/users/1/12981/34_2007/bull.jpg
http://www.rpi.edu/research/magazine/spring07/image/nmr800.jpg Signals produced don't overlap with those of sample RESULTS Conclusion "NMR technology, along with its various other applications, can be used to identify unknown macromolecules" Simpson, Andre, Azadeh Shirzadi, Timpothy E. Burrow, Andrew P. Dicks, Brent Lefebvre, and Tricia Corrin. "Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software To Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks." N.p., 2010. Web. T H A N K Y O U BIBLIOGRAPHY Bimass Briquette Press, Vegerable Oil Press, Pellet Mill for Sale." Biodiesel Machine. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. Diabetes. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."CoolCLIPS Clip Art Directory." CoolCLIPS Clip Art Directory. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Diabetes Daily Post - Best Resource for Type 2 Diabetes." Diabetes Daily Post. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."How Does Starch Indicate Iodine?" General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Redox Reactions:. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."How Does Starch Indicate Iodine?" General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Redox Reactions:. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy." N.p., n.d. Web."Rohan7things." Rohan7things. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Royal Society of Chemistry | Advancing the Chemical Sciences." Royal Society of Chemistry | Advancing the Chemical Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.Simpson Andre, Azadeh Shirzadi, Timpothy E. Burrow, Andrew P. Dicks, Brent Lefebvre, and Tricia Corrin. "Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software To Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks." N.p., 2010. Web."Spirit of Grace Ministries :: Evangelist Dennis Pollock." Spirit of Grace Ministries :: Evangelist Dennis Pollock. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Thinking-man." Willjlindsey RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013."Use of Starch Agar and Milk Agar to Show Digestive Activity during Seed Germination." Use of Starch Agar and Milk Agar to Show Digestive Activity during Seed Germination. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
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